THE STORY OF THE FAMILY LYON

THE STORY OF THE FAMILY LYON

“The Scots Peerage” by Somerville/Winton 1911

A History of the Noble Families of Scotland.

Lyon, Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

Like some other noble families in Scotland, that of Lyon is assigned a Norman origin by our older genealogical writers, few of whose tracts, however, are of a remoter antiquity than the seventeenth century. But while it is probably now a hopeless task to settle who the true eponymous of the race was, it is to be observed in this connection that the most ancient possessions of the family, the Celtic thanages of Glamis, Tannadyce and Belhelvies, lie around the Mounth, that great mountain chain which, rising from the shores of Loch Linnhe, and traversing Scotland in an easterly direction until it declines to sea level at the fishing port of Stonehaven on the German ocean, long remained the stronghold of a Gaelic speaking race. Two significant incidents in the history of the Glamis family, occurring in the early part of the eighteenth century, while the clan system was yet unbroken, and to be referred to in their own place, tend to strengthen the belief that the family is truly of Celtic origin. Many of the offices held by the chiefs of the house in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries could only have been filled by those conversant with the Gaelic language.

John Lyon, with whom the record of the family commences, leaps into fame and power in the reign of David II. His rank in life may be inferred from the fact that from his first appearance we find him fully equipped for his career as a courtier, statesman and diplomatist. He was in the service of the Crown prior to 9 July 1368, as appears from the inductive clause in the charter of Courtastoune granted to him in that year, but the earliest record reference to his official position at Court is on January 1368-69, when he is designed “clericus domini nostri regis” on his appointment as one of the auditors to examine the accounts of the Chamberlain of Scotland. He remained auditor until his own appointment as Chamberlain. In the same year (1369) he was dispatched on a mission to London, and in the English state papers he is referred to as the “Clerk of the Privy Seal of the King of Scotland”.

On the accession of Robert II. in 1371 he was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal. On 10 October 1375, Queen Euphemia, the second wife of Robert II. assigned to him certain liferent duties payable to her out of the revenues of the Castle of Edinburgh, of which John Lyon was then Keeper(Letter of Grant by Queen Euphemia in Glamis Charter room). There is a precept by the King dated at Dunfermlyn 25 June 1380, directing the auditors of the royal accounts to allow to John Lyon (whom he and his eldest son had appointed keeper for life) the whole expenses disbursed by the Chamberlain in fortifying and furnishing the Castle of Edinburgh with provisions, warlike instruments, and all other necessaries. On 20 October 1377 he was appointed Chamberlain of Scotland, then the most important office in the disposal of the Crown. This position he retained until his death. In the spring of 1382 he was again engaged in a mission to England.

His acquisitions of property date from an early period in his career. On 10 July 1367 he acquired from Walter, Earl of Ross, and Euphame his wife, the lands of Fordell in the barony of Forgandenny and on 28 May 1368 from John de Hay, lord of Tullibothwell, Ballyndireth,now Bandirran in the Fenton’s barony of Coulas; on 13 April 1370 from the above John de Hay, Tolynachton, with the pertinents and native men thereof in the forest of Buyne and sheriffdom of Banff; in 1370 from Walter de Lesly, Knight, Lord of Philorth, twenty oxgates of land in Monorgan, with three acres of meadow, three cruives,and a yair called Brakeless, a grant confirmed in 1371 by Andrew de Lesley, Lord of that Ilk; in this charter John Lyon is designed “of Fortevoit” [This designation of Forteviot is interesting as, taken in conjunction with the Chamberlain’s pious solicitude for the welfare of the burgesses of Perth, it affords a possible clue to the origin of the family. Forteviot was one of the ancient Celtic thanages, and at a very early period came into the possession of the Crown. Kenneth Macalpin, King of the Scots, died at his palace there in AD.858 {Chron.of the Picts and Scots,Skene’s ed.,Introd.p.cxxxiii}, and throughout the various changes of dynasty it remained an appanage of the Crown. King Robert the Bruce made grants of various parts of the lands; see particularly Robertson’s Index of Missing Charters,f.19,No.87,etc. For the various grades of landholders in a thanage, from knights downwards, see Skene’s Historians of Scotland,iii.417-418].

The lands of Longforgan he acquired in three separate portions; the first or Pyngle’s part was acquired from Adam de Pyngle,burgess of Aberdeen, the discharge of the purchase price being dated 20 March 1374; the second or Bruce’s part of Longforgan he got in excambion for certain other lands, from Agnes, wife of Sir Robert de Ramesay, Knight, on 28 April 1377; the third or Scarlet’s part was resigned by Thomas Scarlet on 6 June 1377, and confirmed to John Lyon 14 July 1378; these lands were erected into a barony by charter from Robert II. 2 October 1378. On 8 April 1373 he acquired in tack from William de Meldrum Altermony and Dalrevach in Stirling. On 18 February 1375 he had a grant from the convent of Arbroath of the lands belonging to the Abbey within the territory of Glamis [The charter by William de Landell, Bishop of St.Andrews, dissolving the Kirklands of Glamis from the vicarage thereof, the Bull by Pope Gregory XI. confirming that charter, and the subsequent conveyance by way of indenture between John, Abbot of Arbroath, and John Lyon, are in Glamis charter room]. On 29 June 1378, he had a lease from the Abbot of Dunfermline of the lands of Forthros and Schenevale, near Portyncrak in Fife, for services rendered to the monastery; this lease was transferred into heritable right in his grandson’s time, the grantee being taken bound not to remove any of the nativi without the consent of the convent. On 22 March 1379 he had a liferent from Alexander, Abbot of Scone and the monastery thereof, of the lands of Kambusmychell and the two Collanys which belonged to Mariota de Buthirgask, to be holden of the convent for five merks sterling yearly. In 1379 he purchased from John M’Kelly the Island of Inchkeith, the Crown confirmation dated the following day containing a clause prohibiting any one from hunting or hawking on the island without leave from Sir John Lyon under a penalty of ten pounds sterling. From William, Earl of Douglas and Mar, he had a grant of the lands of Balmukedy and Ballynchore, the precept of sasine being dated 21 February 1380. On 20 March 1381 he acquired from Hugh de Ross, lord of the west part of Kynfawnys, the lands of Kindongwane and Clevekippowie or Kippowcleft in the shire of Fife.

His first acquisition from the Crown was the lands of Courtastoune in the territory of Garioch and shire of Aberdeen, granted him on 9 July 1368 by David II. On 18 March 1372 Robert II. granted him in free barony the lands of the thanage of Glamuyss in the sheriffdom of Forfar, for the service of one archer in the King’s army, a grant which marks the alteration of the ancient Celtic holding into a feudal tenure[In Gaelic “glamas” means {1} open jaws in act to snatch,{2} a blacksmith’s or carpenters vice, thus an epithet applicable to territory at the juncture of two streams, if the streams converge somewhat like jaws at the point of confluence; The Gaelic “glomhus” a narrow rocky fissure with water, commonly applied on the west coast to narrow sea inlets is inapplicable here, although in one part of the parish the river forces its way through a narrow rocky chasm, because {1} no old spellings substitute an “o” for an “a” in Glamis;{2} the “m” of “Glomhus” is aspirated and that of “Glamis” shows no trace of aspiration either in written or spoken forms, English or Gaelic]. A confirmation of the charter of Glamis was granted on 7 January 1373-74 by the King’s three sons, John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards Robert III., Robert, Earl of Fife and Menteith, afterwards Duke of Albany and Governor of the kingdom, and Alexander, the “Wolf of Badenoch”,wherein they declare that, considering the deserts of John Lyon and his very faithful services, they confirm and ratify the grant for themselves and their heirs, and promise that never in any future time shall they impugn or revoke the same, even if any of them shall attain the Royal dignity. On 30 January 1380 he received a new investiture to himself and the heirs male of his body, whom failing, to Patrick his nephew, whom failing, to Michael, brother german of Patrick, and the substitutes so named are the only reference to the collateral branches of the House of Lyon in existence at that period [other contemporaries of the Chamberlain were Alexander Lyowne mentioned 14 May 1392 and James de Lyon, Canon of Aberdeen, who died in 1395 but in what degree of consanguinity, if any, they stood to the Chamberlain has not been ascertained]. From the date of the Royal grant Glamis became the chief seat of the family. Malcolm II. died at Glamis on 25 November 1034, and the national records, so far as in existence, prove that it remained a part of the royal patrimony until 1372. On 27 June 1376 King Robert II. granted “dilecto consangqiuneo nostro Johanni de Ross et Johanni Lyovne” the lands of Bondynton of Lathame, the carucate of land called Redeplowland and others in the sheriffdom of Berwick. On 4 October 1376 King Robert II. granted “to his dearest son John Lyon and Johanna his wife, the King’s beloved daughter”, the thanedom of Tannadyce in the sheriffdom of Forfar. He further received from the Crown on 9August 1378 the Loch of Forfar with the fishings thereof and eel chest”; on 27 September 1379 certain lands in Thuriston, Wodhall and Wodoley, in the constabulary of Haddington on 24 December 1381 the whole burgh of Kinghorne with the manor place, lands, rents and forests belonging to the King in the Constabulary of Kinghorne, reserving only the whole great customs of the burgh due from wool,skins and hides; on 30 August 1382 an annualrent of four chalders of victual and £10 sterling, out of the lands of Doune in Banffshire, in the gift of the Crown, and on the same date a charter of the lands of Glendowachy. He had in addition to these lands several grants of escheats from the Crown.

By an indenture dated 17 September 1380, between Sir John on the one part and the Abbot and convent of Scone on the other, he gifted to the monastery all his lands in the burgh of Perth, in the north street thereof, and on the north side of that street, with an annualrent of fifty shillings, payable out of the lands of Thomas de Sallaris in said burgh, for which the Abbot and convent obliged themselves to perform a mass daily at the altar of the Blessed Virgin in the great church of the monastery, where the said Sir John desired to be buried, for the souls of himself and Dame Jean his wife, daughter of Robert, King of Scots, and for the souls of the whole burgesses of Perth.

Sir John Lyon was knighted before 2 October 1377. He was slain on 4 November 1382 by Sir James Lindsay of Crawford. The only contemporary narrative of the event is contained in the accounts of Robert, Earl of Fife and Menteith, who succeeded Sir John in the office of Chamberlain and who states that his death took place on the 4 of November, “suddenly and unexpectedly” The Liber Pluscardensis states that the deed was done at night when the victim was in bed and unsuspecting. All the early references to the catastrophe indicate the belief of the writers that there was foul play, and Lindsay was compelled to flee from Court to elude the vengeance of the King. The event marked the beginning of a feud between the families which remained unhealed for centuries. Many of our old writers were tempted to step aside from the beaten track of their dry annals to celebrate in verse and prose the merits of one who in his day played so important a part in the life of the nation. And since customs and manners have changed greatly in five centuries while human nature has changed greatly in five centuries while human nature has changed not, we may yet discern in the rugged lines of the old makkar the secrets of the Chamberlain’s success:

“Plesand but peir, and weill gevin in all thing;

Lustie and large, plesand of hyde and hew,

Mansweit and meik, rycht secreits als and trew;

Full of vertu, withoutin ony vice,

Baith digest [als] rycht circumspect and wyss;

Aboue all vther in his tyme, I reid

Of pulchritude and fairnes did exceid.

For that same caus as trow rycht weill I can,

Rycht tenderlie him louit mony man;

The King him louit also ouir the laue,

And gaif him oucht that he plesit to haif,

For his vertu and for his fairnes als,

So trew he wes that he was neuir fund fals,

Expert he wes to dyte and wryte rycht fair,

Thairfoir the King maid him his secretair,

And of his signet gaif him all the cuir,

With othir office of him that he buir.”

“He was, by the King’s own direction, interred in the Abbey Church of Scone, where his Majesty intended his own body should be committed to its rest, and where, at his death, he was actually interred”. From his complexion Sir John was styled the “whyte Lyon”.

Sir John’s wife was the Princess Johanna Stewart, one of the daughters of King Robert II. by his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan, The Princess had three husbands. On 17 January 1373-74 she was married to Sir John Keith, eldest son of Sir William Keith, Marischal of Scotland, and she was left a widow before 27 December 1375. Her marriage with Sir John Lyon took place between 27 June and 4 October 1376, on which latter date the King designs him “his dearest son”. The union was at first a secret, and two years later on 10 May 1378, the King publicly acknowledged Sir John as his son, and, with consent of his three sons above named, granted to the spouses letters of acknowledgement and remission for any clandestine marriage formerly contracted by them, in reward a marriage solemnly celebrated between them in face of the Church, in presence of the King and his sons and other friends and relatives. The tocher of the Princess was the thanedom of Tannadyce. After Sir John’s death she married Sir James Sandilands of Calder. On 20 November 1384 King Robert II. granted to Sir James, on his own resignation, the baronies of Dalzell, Motherwell and Wiston, in the sheriffdom of Lannark, to be held by Sir James and Johanna, the King’s daughter, “whom God willing he is about to take to wife”. In the last reference observed to the Princess in 1404 she is designed “Lady Johanna, Lady of Glammys”. She was interred with her husband in the monastery of Scone. So far as appears, the only child of the union between Sir John and the Princess was his son and successor.

Sir John Lyon, Knight. In the charter room at Glamis there is a precept by Robert II. addressed to the Abbot and convent of Dunferline, charging them to enter John Lyon son and heir of the deceased John Lyon, Knight, as heir of his father in the lands of Fothros and Schenevale. On 18 October 1388 the King issued a protection, taking John Lyon “nepotem nostrum”, his lands, men and whole possessions under his peace and protection, etc. and directing all his debtors to make payment to him of their debts without delay; thus avoiding the hardships which a grant of ward would have inflicted upon the youthful heir. His name occurs as a witness to an instrument dated the 27 and 28 August 1392, taken upon the occasion of Christian of Brogan, an infected leper, wife to John of Allan, and sister and nearest heir to Henry of Brogan, Laird of Auchloun, coming to Aberdeen, and there resigning, with consent of her husband, to Sir David Fleming, son and heir of Sir Michael Fleming of Biggar, her right to the lands of Auchloun. He was knighted in or before 1404. On the 4 of December 1423 hid name occurs in a list of the hostages to be delivered in security of the ransom of King James I. A few days afterwards Sir John received a safe-conduct to meet the King at Durham, and there is little doubt he formed one of the company of Scots notables who conducted King James from Durham to his own dominions in April 1424, his son and successor Patrick taking his place as a hostage in England. On 24 February 1433 Sir John, for the better support of the mass founded at Scone by his father, granted an annualrent of forty shillings, payable out of his barony of Forgandenny.

His death is said to have taken place in 1435. Being of the blood-royal he was interred at Scone, “in sacello regum”, and when “the house of Scone was built, and his tomb, with others, raised, there was found there some papers and tokens, with a staff of his own length unconsumed”. He married his first cousin once removed, Elizabeth Graham, youngest daughter of Euphemia, Countess Palatine of Strathern, and her husband, Sir Patrick Graham of Dundaff and Kincardine. The common ancestor was King Robert II.,the bridegroom being a grandson of that monarch and the bride a great granddaughter. By her he had issue:

(1). Patrick, first Lord Glamis.

(2). David, who, with his wife Marjory Strachan, received a charter from his elder brother Patrick of the lands of Redeplowland and others, in the sheriffdom of Berwick, dated in 1449. This charter was confirmed by John, Prior of Coldinghame, the grantee being designed David Lyon of Letham, 16 November 1471. He had a son. John, who was alive on 15 April 1496 ( a witness in a procuratory of resignation of that date, Glamis Writs).

(3). Michael.

[1].Patrick Lyon, first Lord Glamis. On 24 March 1423-24 Sir John Lyon issued letters patent, dated from Glamis, declaring that Patrick, his son and heir, was to remain a hostage in England for the ransom of King James I. On 9 November 1427 Patrick was exchanged for David, Lord of Lesly. On 23 September 1440 he acquired in heritage the lands of Fothros and Schenevale, in the regality of Dunfermline, formerly set in tack by the Abbot to his grandfather, the Chamberlain. In 1442 he was infeft in the ancestral estates in Forfar and Fife. In 1451 he received from James II. a charter of the lands of Cardani-Berclay, Drumgley and Drumgeith, in the sheriffdom of Forfar. On 30 September 1444 he is designed “Patrick Lion of Kinghorn, Knight”. He was created a Lord of Parliament under the title of Lord Glammys on 28 June 1445, and on the same date he is so designed in a report of the proceedings of a committee of Parliament.

Lord Glamis appears as Master of the Household to King James II. on 7 April 1450, and he held the office for the usual period of two years, his attendance at Court, as appears by his signature as witness to the royal charters and other writs, being almost unbroken during that time. In 1450 and the following year he was one of the Lords Auditors of the Treasury. He had a safe-conduct into England as one of the Commissioners appointed for settling infractions of the truce between the Kingdoms 17 April 1451. In 1455 he was again ambassador to England. In 1456-59 he was Keeper of the Royal Castles of Kildrummy, Kindrocht and Balveny, and various payments for the repair and maintenance of these fortresses were made to him during that period. In 1457 he was nominated one of the Lords of Session on behalf of the Barons of Scotland, being the first of seven Judges of the Supreme Court which the House of Glamis has given to Scotland.

Lord Glamis died at Belhelvies on 21 March 1459 and was buried at Glamis (inscription on tomb at Glamis). Judging from the period at which their children began to take an active part in public life, the marriage of Lord Glamis with Isobel Ogilvy, daughter of Sir Walter Ogilvy of Lintrathen (in the Scots Nobilitie she is designed third daughter of Sir Walter), must have taken place soon after his return from England in 1427. After her first husband’s death Lady Glamis married Gilbert, first Lord Kennedy, whom she also survived. She had a full share of the pugnacity of the race from which she sprang. She fought her sons, her tenants, her neighbours, and her creditors, and had a tough struggle with the representatives of her second husband for the possession of the family plate. On 20 June 1480 she entered into an indenture with the Prior and convent of the Preaching Dominicans, friars of Ayr, who, with consent of Brother John More, Vicar General of that Order in Scotland, agreed, in return for a liberal endowment of lands in the town and sheriffdom of Ayr, to perform divine service for the benefit of the souls of James and Margaret, King and Queen of Scotland, of Isobel herself and her father and mother, and of Patrick, Lord Glamis and Gilbert Kennedy, Lord of that Ilk, her husbands. After Lord Kennedy’s death, who was succeeded by his son by a previous marriage, her Ladyship was reconciled to her family, and returned to Forfarshire. “She in her widdoweheid finished the old House of Glams, built the two stone bridges, and the ille in the Kirk of Glames, wherein, with her first husband, she was interred in anno 1484, as the inscription upon the tomb bears witnes”(The Scots Nobilitie. The arms of Lyon impaling Ogilvie appear on the keystones and springs of the southern transept of the church at Glamis). By her Lord Glamis had issue:

(1). Alexander, second Lord Glamis.

(2). John, third Lord Glamis.

(3). William of Pettanys. He obtained a charter of Easter Ogil, in the parish of Tannadyce, from his elder brother Alexander, and on 26 June 1498 his right to the possession of the estate was vindicated in a litigation with his nephew John, fourth Lord Glamis. For ten generations the family of Easter Ogil was extremely fruitful in cadets. In 1718 William Lyon, then of Easter Ogil, disponed his estate to trustees for behoof of his creditors, and in 1740 the property was adjudged to John Lyon of Balgillo; subsequently it passed into the hands of strangers.

(4). Patrick, styled brother-german of Alexander, Lord Glamis, in a procuratory of resignation by George Bell of the Holmes, dated 1 March 1481.

(5). Elizabeth, married before 1 April 1460, to Alexander Robertson of Strowane.

[2]. Alexander, second Lord Glamis. In 1460 he was infeft by Crown precept in the lands of Kinghorne and the thanages of Glamis and Tannadyce. In 1478 he was in possession of the lands of Redeplowland, originally granted to the Chamberlain. In 1461 he was appointed Keeper of the castle of Kildrummy and Kindrocht in succession to his father. In 1463 his name is included in the list of Barons present in Parliament, and from that time onwards he was a leading figure in the administration of the Kingdom. He was nominated one of the Lords of Council. One of Alexander’s colleagues in the exercise of his duties was his younger and successor, Mr John Lyon of Courtastoune, afterwards third Lord Glamis. This is one of the two examples in Scottish history in which brothers contemporarily exercised supreme judicial functions in Scotland, the other example being in the Hope family in the time of Charles I. In 1464 he was one of the Barons appointed to attend the King at Berwick, to meet the English ambassadors summoned to Newcastle to conclude a truce. In 1478 the feud between him and the Master of Crawford reached such a pass that Parliament endeavoured in vain to find a remedy. In 1468 John, Abbot of Scone, in consideration of a mortification by Lord Glamis, payable out of the lands of Forgandenny, and of the gift of a croft lying on the south side of the monastery, engaged to perform the exequies of the dead, viz.a Placabo and Dirige on the day of his decease annually in the choir, and a mass of requiem on the morrow for the weal of his soul and of the souls of his ancestors and successors. The last reference observed to him is on 14 August 1484. He died in 1486. He married, during the lifetime of his father, Agnes, the daughter of William, Lord Crichton, Chancellor of Scotland. The bond for the lady’s tocher of 900 merks is dated 17 February 1449-50. On the same date he and his spouse received a charter of the lands of Auchtermunny, in the sheriffdom of Stirling, and of Banchory and Petedy, in the constabulary of Kinghorne. There were no children of the marriage, and on his death his widow married, after 20 October 1487 Walter Ker of Cessford.

[3]. John, third Lord Glamis, was in no measure inferior in point of energy and ability to his great ancestor the Chamberlain. In 1464, as Mr John Lyon of Courtastoune, he received payments from the Crown for certain expenditure on the castles of Kildrummy and Kindrocht, of which his father Patrick, first Lord Glamis, had been Keeper, and he made material additions to the resources of the family. In 1479 he purchased from George Bell of the Holmys, Inchture, in the sheriffdom of Perth. From Dorothea Tulloch, one of the ladies of Bonyngtoun, and Walter Wode, her husband, he had a charter, on 4 April 1479, of one half of the Loch Mills of Forfar. From David, Lord Lindsay of the Byres, he had a grant of the lands of Puresk, in Kinghorne, the precept for infefting him being dated 12 November 1488. One fourth part of the barony of Baky, in the sheriffdom of Forfar, was acquired on the resignation of Henry Douglas 14 August 1487, a second fourth part was acquired from Jonet Fenton of Baky 4 July 1489. On 5 September 1491 he acquired the fourth part of Little Buttirgask, Collace and Strathfentoun,co.Perth, from the heirs of the above Jonet Fentoun.

On 14 October 1472 he was made Coroner within the bounds of Forfar and Kincardine. In 1483-84 he appears on the bench with the Lords Auditors and also with the Lords of Council in deciding civil cases, and continued to act in these capacities for ten years. On 11 January 1487 King James III. nominated him one of the “Great Justices” on the south side of the Forth. One great opportunity of displaying his qualities as a statesman was vouchsafed to him. After the death of King James III. at Sauchieburn a Parliament met at Edinburgh on 16 October 1488, to secure a general paciflication, when the events which led to the late conflict were fully debated. The assembly, after listening to an explanation by Lord Glamis, of the causes that led “to the slauchteris committed and done in the field of Striulin quhar ouir souerane lordis fader happinit to be slane”, unanimously resolved that the wisest thing now to do was to “agree that the King that now is our true souerane”.

The attitude maintained by Lord Glamis throughout so grave a crisis secured him the respect and confidence of both sides; he was peculiarly fortunate in obtaining the friendship of the young King, and during the early years of the new reign his attendance at court was continuous (between 28 June 1488 and 19 October 1495 his name occurs as a witness to charters and other Crown writs on about four hundred occasions). In the Parliament in which he made so happy a use of his forensic talents, he was, with the Lord Gray and the Master of Crawford, appointed a Lord Justice “for Angus, Hieland and Lawland, and to sit with the justices of the regalities”. On 15 February 1489 he was appointed one of the Crown Auditors, and on the 26 of June following a member of the King’s Privy Council. In 1490, when he was appointed a Commissioner under the Privy Seal to let the Crown lands, the King designs him “our Justice”; the ordinary title being simply “Justiciar”. In 1491 he was one of the Lords appointed to attend the young King at Berwick to conclude, if possible, a truce with England, and in the same year he was Ambassador from Scotland to the Courts of France, Castile, Leon, Arragon and Sicily. In 1495 his name occurs as one of the two Justiciars “on the south side of the Forth”.

On 20 October 1491 King James IV.,at the instance of Lord Glamis, erected the town of Glammys, in the sheriffdom of Forfar, into a free burgh of barony for ever, with power to elect bailies, and to hold a cross and market on Friday in each week, and a public fair every year on the feast day of St.Fergus (17 November), and for the four days following, with right to impose tolls. On 12 October 1487 Lord Glamis granted a mortification of an annualrent of twelve merks and certain portions of the lands of Glamis to the altar of St.Thomas the Martyr in the parish church there, for the celebration of divine service for the souls of his elder brother Alexander and Agnes Creichtoun his wife.

The last reference observed to John, third Lord Glamis, is in the Treasurer’s accounts for 1496. He died 1 April 1497, and was buried at Glamis. He married Elizabeth, said to have been daughter of John Scrymgeour of Dudhope, Constable of Dundee. She died prior to 20 October 1492, on which date her husband, with consent of John, his eldest son, mortified to the chapel of the Holy Trinity, in the Parish Church of Glamis, two acres and a toft of land in the barony of Glamis for the benefit of her soul. Their children were:

(1). John, fourth Lord Glamis.

(2). David of Baky, lay rector of Forbes, tutor of George, fifth Lord Glamis. He purchased the lands of Cossins from Thomas Cossins of that Ilk, in three portions, in 1500, 1504 and 1511. He fell at Flodden. His son John sold Cossins to John, Lord Glamis, in 1524, and afterwards purchased Haltoun of Eassie. His descendants continued to be styled of Cossins, holding the lands under a wadset from their chief until the failure of the elder line in 1684. The representation of this branch then devolved upon George Lyon of Wester Ogil, wadsetter of Balmuckatie, who was the second son of John Lyon of Cossins, who was grandson of the above David of Baky. The present Laird of Wester Ogil, Mr Andrew Thomson Lyon, is the tenth in descent from David of Baky.

(3). William, slain at Flodden.

(4). George, slain at Flodden.

(5). Violetta, married, before 1464, to Hugh, first Lord Lovat.

(6). Janet, married to Gilbert Hay of Templeton, a precept for her infeftment in Templeton and Crawgaston is dated 9 January 1487.

(7). Christian, married (contract 24 April 1492) as his first wife, to William, fourth Earl of Erroll; tocher £1000.

(8). Agnes, married, first to Arthur, fifth Lord Forbes, who died in 1493 s.p.; on 25 June 1494 she pursued his brother and successor, John, sixth Lord Forbes, for wrongously withholding her terce; secondly, to John Ross of Craigy. She died before 30 April 1529.

(9). Margaret, married (contract 10 June 1495) to James Rynd, younger of Broxmouth; tocher 400 merks.

(10). Mariota, married William, son of Sir James Ochterlony of that Ilk. There is a charter by Sir James to the spouses 2 November 1499.

(11). Elizabeth, married to William Forbes, son of the Laird of Echt. She died s.p. before 24 September 1509.

[4]. John, fourth Lord Glamis. On 25 June 1488, in his father’s lifetime, he entered into an indenture with Margaret Fenton of Baky and John Lindsay her son, by which he acquired another fourth part of Baky, the Crown charter following being dated 2 August 1488. On 4 July 1489 he acquired from David Nairne, grandson of Isabella Fenton of Baky, the remaining fourth part of Baky. In 1496 he was infelt by Crown precept in the thanages of Glamis and Tannadyce, Cardenbercla, Drumgly, one half of the barony of Baky, and other family possessions, and on 9 June 1497 in the lands held of the Abbey of Arbroath within the territory of Glamis. In 1500 he was infelt in the office of Coroner of Forfar and Kincardine.

He died in 1500 of a wound received in an encounter with the Ogilvys, for which an assythement was paid to David Lyon of Baky, as tutor to George, fifth Lord Glamis (In an action pursued by Margaret Fenton of Baky and John Lindsay her son against John Ogilvy of Fingask, Knight, and others, for payment of an assythement of £200 for the slaughter of James Lindsay, brother german of John, it was answered by Sir John, that his father and the Lord Ogilvy and he “had pait the said assithment amendis and kinbut to David Lyon as Tutor to George, Lord Glamis, son and heir to umquhile John Lord Glammis, quhilk John wes hurt at the said slaughter, and wes principale perty at the skaith takin”, Acta Dom.Conc.,XV.43,18 November 1503).

He married, in 1487 Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew second Lord Gray. She married, secondly in 1511, Alexander, third Earl of Huntly, and thirdly in 1525, George fourth Earl of Rothes. Through her the house of Lyon claimed right to the estate of Foulis, and the dispute on this point between the two families was not settled until 1575. Her children by Lord Glamis were:

(1). George, fifth Lord Glamis.

(2). John, sixth Lord Glamis.

(3). Mr Alexander, chantor or precentor of Moray. He held Courtastoune and Belhelvies in liferent. He was tutor to his nephew John, seventh Lord Glamis. He was a benefactor to the church of Aberdeen. He died in 1541, and was buried in the choir of Turriff, which he built.

[5]. George, fifth Lord Glamis. He was infelt in 1500 on Crown precept in the family estates in the sheriffdoms of Aberdeen, Angus, Fife and Perth. On 28 October 1501 he had a charter of Balnawis and part of Haltoun of Kynnell in Forfarshire from Thomas, Lord Fraser of Lovat. He died in 1505 unmarried and a minor.

[6]. John, sixth Lord Glamis, was born c.1491 (the Carse MS.states that he was thirty seven years of age at his death). He, between that date and 1528, had sasine of or made up titles to the family estates in Perth, Forfar, and Fife.

In public life Lord Glamis supported the party of Queen Margaret against that of her former husband the Earl of Angus. He was “a werie bold, stoute and resolute man, and by the Commones called to ane byename Clange-Causey for his manie quarrells”. Lord Glamis died at Leith 8 April 1528 and was buried at Glamis. He married Jonet Douglas, third daughter of George, Master of Angus, who was slain at Flodden, and sister of Archibald, sixth Earl of Angus. After the death of Lord Glamis she married Alexander Campbell of Skipnish, second son of Archibald, second Earl of Argyll. In his blind anger against the house of Douglas, Lady Glamis as the sister of the banished Earl was marked down for destruction by James V.,but the conduct of his intended victim was so irreproachable that years elapsed before the King was able to put his purpose into execution. Her name was included in the general Douglas proscription of 18 January 1528-29, for the counsel, assistance and help given by her to her brothers Archibald and George, but no immediate action followed, and on 20 September 1529 she with Patrick Charteris of Cuthilgurdy had a special licence “now to depart and pas to the partis bezond sey in thaire pilgrimage and utheris liefull besynes there to be done, and to remaine in quhatsumevir realme or cuntre they pleas as thai sall think expedient except the realme of Ingland”. On 1 July 1531 a certain Gawyne Hamilton received a gift of her escheat “throw her being fugitive fra the law and at the horn or convicted of intercommonyng with our souerane lordis rebellis”. On 1 January 1532 she was indicted on the ground of poisoning her late husband John, Lord Glamis, her uncle John Drummond of Innerpeffray becoming cautioner for her appearance. A month later she appeared to answer the accusation, but the jury summoned, mostly Angus gentry, refused to countenance so shameless a charge, and were fined for non appearance, a second jury summoned from a wider circle three weeks later also refusing to appear were likewise fined. At length on 17 July 1537 she was accused as being “art and part of the tressonabill conspiratioune and ymaginatioune of the slauchter and destructione of our souerane lordis maist nobill person be poysone, and for art and part in the tressonable assistance supple’ ressett intercommonyng and fortifying of Archibald, sumtyme Erll of Anguse and George Douglas hir brether, traytouris and rebellis”. She was found guilty and condemned to be burned on the Castlehill of Edinburgh, and the horrid sentence was carried out the same day. “She was burnt upon the Castle Hill with great commiseration of the people, in regard of her noble bloud, of her husband, being in the prime of her years, of a singular beauty, and suffering all, though a woman, with a man like courage; all men conceiving that it was not this fact {the charge of poisoning the King} but the hatred the King carried to her brothers”. The English ambassador wrote that Lady Glamis was put to death “as I can perceyue without any substanciall ground or proyf of mattir”. On the day after her trail her husband Archibald Campbell of Skipnish, in trying to escape from Edinburgh Castle, fell from the rocks and was killed. The children of John, sixth Lord Glamis and Jonet Douglas were:

(1). John, seventh Lord Glamis.

(2). George, who was imprisoned with his brother in Edinburgh Castle. The brothers were released immediately after the death of James V.,and on 18 January 1543 they found caution in the sum of 10,000 merks that they should keep their ward within the burgh of Edinburgh and two miles thereabout.Five years, however, of close imprisonment in a fortress had proved too great a strain on his constitution and he died shortly after his release.

(3). Margaret, died at Glamis, unmarried 15 June 1610.

(4). Elizabeth, married, first, before 30 June 1535. to John, Master of Forbes, who being delated by the Earl of Huntly for treason, was tried before the High Court of Justiciary and beheaded at Edinburgh on 17 July 1537, secondly to Thomas Craig of Balnely, with issue a son John; Thirdly about 8 May 1548 to John Tulloch, portioner of Montcoffer and had issue a daughter Elizabeth; fourthly to Mr John Abernethy, who was her husband in 1565.

[7]. John, seventh Lord Glamis, was born c.1521. On 9 November 1528 he was infelt in the barony of Longforgan. He was about sixteen years of age when, in 1537, with his younger brother George, he was imprisoned in the Castle of Edinburgh. There he was compelled to witness the agonies of his clansmen who were put to the torture of the rack in the vain attempt to extort from them words which should implicate his mother. He was threatened with similar treatment, and under this dire compulsion signed a confession that he was “art and part of the tressonable conceling and nocht reuiling of the tressonabill conspiratioune and imaginatioun of the distructioune of ouir souerane lordis nobill personne be poysonne, ymaginat and conspirat be vmquhile Jonet, Lady Glammys his moder”. On the 18 of July 1537 he was brought before the Lords of Justiciary and his confession produced against him. He was forthwith condemned to death, and his estates and honours forfeited to the Crown. The execution was deferred, but as a condemned traitor he was remitted a close prisoner to the Castle of Edinburgh.

Having thus, in defiance of the obligations and injunctions of his ancestors, brought to pass, as he supposed, the ruin of the House of Lyon, the King of Scotland took instant possession of the estates of the family, and from the date of the sentence upon the young baron until within a few weeks of his own death, he was busily employed in distributing the outlying portions of the estates among the hangers-on of the Court, and upwards of thirty Crown charters to as many different individuals attest the royal industry in that respect. He was not above intromitting with the family plate, and antiquaries may lament the disappearance of the great silver flagons of Glamis, twelve in number, each of seven pounds weight, which were melted down to supply the exigencies of the royal mint. The castle and barony of Glamis, however, with some other portions of the estates, he retained in his own possession. This Naboth’s vineyard indeed seems to have had a weird fascination for James V. A royal establishment was permanently maintained at Glamis Castle from 1538 onwards, and the Treasury accounts for the remainder of the reign teem with entries relating to its upkeep. The King was frequently in residence, and many royal charters and other writs are dated from Glamis Castle. He was there in the Feast of St.Andrew 1538, in January and September 1539, in the autumn and winter of 1540, in the autumn of 1541, and in the spring of 1542. Then the Border troubles began and Glamis saw him no more.

On the prison doors being opened on the death of James V.,the young baron immediately set himself to recover his estates. On the first day of the first Parliament of Queen Mary, held at Edinburgh on 12 March 1543-44, he presented a summons of reduction against the Crown, concluding for reinstatement in his honours, dignities, offices and estates. The summons had been duly served on the distinguished personages against whom it was directed, and the ceremonies attending its proclamation by the heralds at the Market Crosses of Edinburgh, Cupar, Perth, Dundee, Forfar and Aberdeen, were made the occasion of popular demonstrations by the friends of the clan. A few days afterwards Parliament rescinded the forfeiture. On the same date the Crown in part amends of past injustice, in addition to restoring to Lord Glamis those portions of the estate still in its possession, granted him the non-entry duties of his whole lands. Those he had little difficulty in recovering. There remained but the barony of Kinghorne. That had been gifted to the Treasurer, James Kirkcaldy of Grange, who after the death of James V. retained his post. He had extracted from Lord Glamis, as a preliminary to the restitution by the Crown, a promise that he should not be disturbed in its enjoyment, and had conveyed the barony to his son William. This compulsion Lord Glamis resented, and contemplated, indeed had actually taken steps to reduce the Crown gift to Grange, when further proceedings were rendered unnecessary by the forfeiture of the Treasurer’s son for his share in the slaughter of Cardinal Beaton. The Queen-Dowager, Mary of Lorraine, securing the gift of William Kirkcaldy’s forfeiture, made over her rights therein, so far as relating to the barony of Kinghorne, to Lord Glamis for the sum of 2000 merks. So eventually the family were reinstated in their former possessions.

In 1549 Lord Glamis was served heir to Elizabeth Gray, Countess of Huntly, his grandmother, and in her right claimed that part of the barony of Longforgan called Huntly. He purchased the teinds of Glamis from Cardinal Beaton, perpetual commendator of Arbroath.

Lord Glamis sat as a member of the Privy Council 18 February 1544, and up to 3 May 1547 his name appears in the sederunts. In public life he first appears as a partisan of the Douglases on their return to Scotland after the death of James V.,but discovering how completely that faction was in the hands of the English King, he soon after left them, and in June 1545 joined the Queen Mother and Cardinal Beaton in their opposition to the overbearing tactics of Henry VIII. He was present in Parliament on 26 June 1545, when it was agreed to accept the offer of the King of France to send a force into Scotland to aid the country against “the commoun inymy of Ingland”. and he served in the vanguard of the Scottish Army, which in three bodies invaded England in that year. There is a charter by him dated at Glamis 4 October 1548, about which time he disappears from public life in Scotland, and spent his latter years abroad, where, having contracted a sickness, he came home “to get his native air”. He died before 18 September 1559, on which date John, Earl of Atholl, had a gift of the ward.

He married, “with greit trivmphe” on 6 February 1543-44, Jean Keith, daughter of Robert, Master of Marischal, and sister of William, fourth Earl Marischal. She was infelt in Courtastoune and Drumgowan upon a precept under the Quarter Seal 6 February 1543-44. On 24 November 1559 she was kenned to her terce before the Sheriff of Forfar, in the baronies of Glamis, Baky and Tannadyce, and cavels being cast for the sun and shadow, the lady fell to her cavel at the sun. Concerning her little is known, only the careers of her sons remain an enduring memorial to her lofty conceptions of duty. By her Lord Glamis had issue:

(1). John, eighth Lord Glamis.

(2). Sir Thomas. Except for the period 1575-78 which intervened between the birth of his nephew Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis, and the death of Patrick’s father John, eighth Lord Glamis, he was heir presumptive to the title, and was known as the Master of Glamis. On the death of his brother John, eighth Lord, in 1578, he again became heir presumptive while filling the post of tutor to his nephew, and from this latter period until 1596 he was indifferently styled Master or Tutor of Glamis. He was presented by his elder brother John to the Chaplainry of Baky 10 March 1567, and he is designed chaplain of the Chapel of St.John at Baky in 1576. His other designation were “of Scrogerfield”, purchased in 1571; “of Baldukie”, a property acquired from his brother in 1576; “of Balumbie”, purchased in 1579; “of Melgund” and “of Auldbar”, finally acquired in1580, although he was in possession of these two properties sometime previously. To write even briefly the career of this statesman, which covered the stormy period of the minority of James VI., would be to attempt a history of Scotland. The briefest outline of a few incidents, his share in which was more than usually conspicuous, must suffice. He was employed in March 1578 in the negotiations which led to Morton’s resignation of the regency. With the Earls Mar and Gowrie he entered into the bond for the overthrow of Lennox and Arran, and was one of the principal actors in the “Raid of Ruthven”. After that event the confederate nobles, as the holders of the King’s person were termed, were installed in power, and on 12 October 1582 the Master of Glamis appears as a Privy Councillor. He was the one individual connected with the Raid of Ruthven for whom the King entertained a personal regard, having been a companion of his boyhood’s days in Stirling Castle. The King unexpectedly gave his guardians the slip at St.Andrews on 25 June 1583. Arran returned to power and did his upmost to inflame the King’s mind, but James showed little animosity against his captors and was more inclined to pardon than to prosecute them. Attempts were made to heal the feud between the Lyons and the Crawfords but without success, and ultimately, disregarding an order to ward himself in Dumbarton Castle, the Master passed into England. Forfeiture naturally followed. Stirling Castle was seized by the Master and his friends on 17 April 1584. But they were unable to make headway against Arran, and were compelled once more to seek shelter in England. They recrossed the Borders on 24 October 1585, Arran fled, and after a ten day’s campaign the Master and his friends were in power, the King accepting his new Councillors with little demur. On 7 November 1585 the Master became once more a member of the Privy Council, and on the same day Captain of the King’s Bodyguard. On 2 December he was appointed Treasurer of Scotland. a pension of £1000 per annum being attached to the post. On 20 January 1586-87 he was nominated one of the commissioners for considering grants out of the Crown lands, and on 9 February following one of the Extraordinary Lords of Session. On 28 November 1588 he was supplanted in the post of Captain of the Guard by the Earl of Huntly, and in the following year taking the field against that noble he was surprised and taken prisoner at the House of Kirkhill by Gordon of Auchindoun, but was released on the advance of the King in person. He was knighted at the coronation of Queen Anne 17 May 1590. He inferited in undiminished lustre the fighting qualities of his ancestress the lady of the first Lord Glamis. Sir Walter Scott’s picture of him as “a rude, stern man” seems hardly justified, but he was never happy when at peace, and with Chancellor Thirlestane he maintained a running fight for many years, which culminated in November 1591 in his imprisonment in Blackness, and at the same time he was deprived of his post of Extraordinary Lord of Session, but was reappointed 8 March 1592-93, and on 28 May following admitted an Ordinary Lord of Session. On 9 January 1595-96 he was relieved of the Treasurership, though his resignation did not take effect till May following. On 30 January 1597-98 he was excused from further attendance as a Lord of Session “in respect of his great deseis notour to the Lordis”, but his name appears in the sederunts of Privy Council up to 18 May of that year, when he disappears from public life. His attitude towards the elder branch of his House was not a friendly one, and he cast a covetous eye upon the family estates, but his conduct in these particulars will be more conveniently referred to in the account of his nephew Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis. He died 18 February 1608. When the King heard of the event he is said to have observed that the boldest and hardiest man in his dominions was dead.

He married, first, after 1575, Agnes, third sister of Patrick, fifth Lord Gray. She was widow of Robert Logan of Restalrig, and of Alexander, fifth Lord Home. The Master of Glamis and his wife had a dispute with the Home family regarding the keeping of the Castle of Home, which was seized on 7 November 1578, by Andrew Home, Commendator of Jedburgh, Tutor of Home. The Master declared that the castle had been delivered to him and his spouse to kept in the King’s name and delivered again on demand under the penalty of 20,000 merks, and he declared his willingness on being relieved of that obligation to allow the Commendator to remain in possession; the proposal was agreed to on 19 December 1579. The spouses had a Crown charter of Auldbar 6 May 1580. They had issue:

(1). Anna, who was alive on 16 November 1636, on which date William Dick of Braid, merchant burgess of Edinburgh, granted a discharge in her favour.

(2). Mary, was married, first in 1617 to Sir Robert Scott of Cruikstoun (she divorced him for adultery 16 July 1622, Edin.Com.Decs.), secondly toRobert Sempill of Beltrees.

He married, secondly in 1586 Eupham, daughter of William, fifth Earl of Morton, with issue:

(3). John, served heir to his father in Auldbar 6 August 1608. He married (contract 16 February 1611) Eupham Gledstanes, daughter of George Archbishop of St.Andrews, tocher £11,000, the bridegroom becoming bound to ratify his marriage on attaining perfect age, an event which took place in 1613. There was no issue of the marriage. In the course of a few years he dissipated the fortune so painfully acquired by his father, and by 1619 such of his lands as were not sold were held by the Earl of Kinghorne in trust. He was alive in 1649, when he is designed “John Lyon sumtyme of Auldbar, now citiner in Brechin”, and this is the last reference observed to him.

(4).Thomas. He attained majority in September 1615. He contracted many debts. In 1618 he was denounced for an attack upon his brother in law Mr James Stewart of Tullos. In 1619 he is noted as one of a small band of “young and insolent lymmaris” who infested Brechin, and were denounced as rebels, and in the following year he disappears from record.

(5). Margaret, married before 11 August 1609 to Mr James Stewart, afterwards Sir James of Eday and Tullos, Gentleman of the Bedchamber to James VI.,fourth son of Robert Stewart, Earl of Orkney. On 29 November 1625 he and his wife received a pension of £900 per annum from the Crown, this slender provision coming in lieu of a liberal income provided to him by his brother the Earl of Orkney who had been forfeited.

The Treasurer had also a natuarl son named James.

(3). Margaret, married (contract 30 September 1566), first, to Gilbert, fourth Earl of Cassillis, tocher 10,000 merks; secondly (contract 30 December 1577), to John, first Marquess of Hamilton. She died at Evandaill in 1626.

[8]. John, eighth Lord Glamis, was born c.1544. He was infelt in the family estates 17 April 1550, reserving the liferent of his father and mother in the Aberdeenshire baronies and the right of his father in the remaining lands. Subsequently he resigned the estates in Forfar, Perth and Aberdeen, in favour of himself and the following substitutes (1). Thomas Lyon of Auldbar his brother; (2). John Lyon of Haltoun of Eassie; (3). John Lyon of Easter Ogill; (4). John Lyon of Culmalegy; the instrument of resignation, the Crown charter, and the precept following thereon being all dated 28 April 1567.

He was present, being still a youth, as one of the Lords of Convention at a meeting of the Privy Council held at Edinburgh on 22 December 1560, when the tenants of Kirklands were temporarily secured in the possession thereof. He chose curators 17 March 1561-62. He does not again appear until 17 March 1565, on the eve of Mary’s marriage with Darnley. He held a command in the Queen’s forces assembled in October of that year to defeat the projects of Murray and his associates, when the royal army chased their opponents from pillar to post in such a fashion that the campaign came to be known as the “Run-about-Raid”. After the death of Darnley, Lord Glamis still adhered to the cause of Queen Mary, and he was present at the marriage of the Queen with Bothwell, but he soon joined her opponents. He was appointed a member of the Privy Council by the Regent Murray, and from 22 December 1567 onwards his name occurs as a regular attender at the sederunts of Council until within a month of his death. On 23 February 1568 he entered into a bond with James Scrymgeour, Constable of Dundee, Thomas Maule of Panmure and other Forfar barons, who obliged themselves to set forth and maintain the King’s authority to the uttermost of their power, and to protect themselves mutually when attacked, and after the battle of Langside his influence was sufficiently powerful to protect his brother-in-law, the Earl of Cassillis, from forfeiture. He was one of the pall-bearers at the Regents Murray’s funeral in St,Giles’s Church, Edinburgh, 22 February 1569-70. He was nominated by the Regent Lennox an Extraordinary Lord of Session 30 September 1570, resigning that post on 8 October 1573, when he received a commission from James VI. with consent of the Earl of Morton as Regent, appointing him Chancellor of the Kingdom and Keeper of the Great Seal during his life. In 1571 he was one of a quartette of nobles entrusted with the custody of the King’s person and in the same year one of the Commissioners appointed to meet those from England at Berwick to deliberate on the subjects in dispute between the realms, and to establish a peace. He corresponded with Beza the famous theologian on questions of church government, supporting the maintenance of Bishops. Lord Glamis was on terms of close intimacy with the Regent Morton, who had been one of his curators and was his first cousin once removed, the Regent’s father being that George Douglas for intercommuning with whom Lady Glamis had been indicted, and as an aefauld man he was selected to conduct the negotiations with Morton which led to the latter’s surrender of the Regency. He was not present at Stirling on 8 March 1577-78 when the King took upon him the government of the kingdom, and the statement that he sided against his old friend is disproved by his attendence up to tha last at the meeting of Council over which Morton presided. While still engaged in the negotiations the Chancellor was killed at Stirling on 17 March 1577-78. Contemporary narratives with one exception agree as to the accidental nature of the catastrophe. While Lord Glamis was coming down from the Castle of Stirling to his lodging in the town, the Earl of Crawford was going up, and the parties met in a narrow wynd. Each noble bade his company give way, but in passing two retainers jostled, swords were drawn, and almost immediately Lord Glamis, conspicuous by his stature, was shot by a pistolet in the head. The event naturally aggravated the feud between the families. The panegyrics on the Chancellor recall the tribute paid by the old makkar to his ancestor the Chamberlain. “The death of the Chancellor”, wrote Spottiswoode, “was much lamented falling out in the time when the King and country stood in most need of his service. He had carried himself with much commendation in his place and acquired a great authority, most careful was he to have peace conserved both in the country and the church”. “A learned, godly, and wise man”, wrote Calderwood; “a good justiciar”, observed Scotstarvet; “a guid learned nobleman” was James Melville’s observation. The English ambassador described him at one time as “of greatest revenue of any baron in Scotland”, and at another “very wise and discreet, wealthy, but of no party or favour”. The General Assembly which met at Edinburgh in April 1578 passed a resolution of regret at the event, and ordered a general fast “to be zealouslie keepit throwout the land”, and the Moderator, the famous Andrew Melville, who was one of the Chancellor’s greatest friends and admirers, found vent for his grief in the bitter epigram:

“Tu, Leo magne, jacis inglorius; ergo manebunt

Qualia fata canes? Qualia fata sues?”

Scotticised by his nephew:

“Sen lawlie lyes, noble Lyon fyne,

What sall betyde behind, to dogges and swine!”

He married,11 April 1561, Elizabeth,daughter of William, fifth Lord Abernethy of Saltoun, widow of William Meldrum of Fyvie.By his testament, dated at Glamis 2 October 1571, his wife was appointed tutrix to his three daughters, with the Regent Morton as oversman. By her he had issue:

(1). Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis.

(2). Elizabeth, married (contract 18 May 1575) to Patrick, afterwards sixth Lord Gray, whom she divorced for adultery 21 May 1585. Elizabeth married, secondly (contract 14 February 1586-87) William Ker, otherwise Kirkcaldy of Grange, second son of Sir Thomas Ker of Fernihirst. They had four children.

(3). Jean, married first (contract 19 March 1582-83) to Robert Douglas, younger of Lochleven, who was believed to have been drowned; secondly (contract 29 July 1587) to Archibald, eighth Earl of Angus; thirdly, before 14 June 1589, to Alexander, first Lord Spynie.

(4). Sibilla, who was alive 17 December 1579.

[9]. Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis, was born in 1575. His first act on attaining majority was to settle accounts with his uncle and curator, Sir Thomas Lyon of Auldbar. On 13 November 1596, Patrick having attained majority, the parties entered into a contract “for the establisching and continewing of pace and concord amangis thame”. From this document, which is of portentous length, it appears that the Treasurer, from the time of his elder brother’s death, and throughout the pupillarity and minority of his ward, had strenuously set himself to secure every right in connection with the family possessions which could possibly be purchased. What object there was in view in these acquisitions may be conjectured, but in the end the young heir proved a match for his plotting uncle, and in consideration of being discharged of his tutorial and curatorial intromissions, and of receiving a heritable title to the barony of Tannadyce, under burden of the wadsets on it, the Treasurer agreed to renounce the whole of his rights to his nephew, whose chamberlains were to draw the rents of the estates for crop and year 1595 onwards. The Treasurer rued his bargain and litigation ensued until, in 1605, and again in 1606, Lord Glamis obtained decreets compelling Sir Thomas to implement the contract.

For some years unsuccessful attempts were made to heal the feud between the Lyons and the Lindsays, and at last in 1602, when Sir John Murray became cautioner for Lord Glamis in 10,000 merks that the latter would either (1) pursue the Earl of Crawford for the slaughter of his father in the streets of Stirling; or (2) submit the feud to arbitration; or (3) go abroad, the stubborn young noble chose the latter alternative, and went. His stay abroad must have been short, however, as he was present in the Parliament held in Perth on 11 July 1604, when he was named one of the Commissioners to treat of the proposed union with England. This was a project the King had much at heart, and he addressed a letter on the subject to Lord Glamis. On 13 July 1606 he was again present at Perth, when the Treaty of Union was discussed. From this time forward he took an active part in the affairs of the State, and was present in all the Parliaments held in the reign of James VI.,and attended assiduously to the business of the Privy Council, of which he was a member. He supported the King in his Church policy, and was one of the assessors at the trial and conviction of the ministers concerned in the Aberdeen Assembly, 2 July 1605. Two years afterwards he was one of the three Commissioners appointed to represent the King in the Synod of Angus and Mearns. In 1610 he was admitted a member of the remodelled Privy Council.

On 10 July 1606 he was created Earl of Kinghorne, Lord Lyon and Glamis. The patent is not on record, but it is referred to in subsequent patent of 1672. He made several additions to the family estates. On 15 May 1604 he acquired from John Spalding, portioner of Kinnalty, in the barony of Reidie, one fourth part of Kinnalty; on 26 August 1607, from George Lammie of Dunkenny, another fourth part; from Thomas Ogilvie of Wester Craigs, St.Margaret’s Inch, and the Garth, with the fishing in the Loch of Forfar, on 16 May 1605; from George Fullerton of Denoon and Matilda Nevy, his wife, Wester Denoon, in the barony of Dundee, with remainder to James, his second and Frederick, his third sons, 10 May 1608; from John and Thomas Lyon, the sons of the Treasurer, with consent of their mother and curators, he reacquired the barony of Tannadyce, the contract of sale being dated in July 1609, ratifled by John Lyon on attaining majority, 12 June 1613, with consent of his interdictor George, Archbishop of St.Andrews, and by Thomas on his attaining majority, 9 September 1615; the twapart Mains of Huntly and the third part of Longforgan, with Littletoune and Lawriestoune, acquired by his father from Patrick, Lord Gray, in 1575, under reversion, he purchased outright for 40,000 merks on 30 June 1613.

The Earl died at Edinburgh 19 December 1615, and was buried at Glamis. His testament-dative (St.Andrews Tests.,30 April 1616. The Funeral Entry in the Lyon Office, which gives 1 and 26 September 1616 as dates of death and burial, appears to be inaccurate), is of interest as giving an idea of the establishment of a Scots nobleman at that period. The chief servants were a principal servitor and master stabular, who was a foreigner named Nicola Vieane; two servitors, John Lyon and Mr William Murray; a musicianer; a steward; John Murray, senior, master cook and browstar; John Murray, younger, foreman in the bakehouse and brewhouse; a foreman in the kitchen; a master porter and his servant; lackeys in the stable (unnumbered); a grieve; and an officer. Her Ladyship’s establishment included two gentlewomen; a browdinstar (embroiderer); a lotrix (bedmaker); and two other female servants, whose duties are unspecifled. He married, at Linlithgow, in June 1595, Anne Murray, daughter of John Earl of Tullibardine. She and her husband were infeft in the barony of Baky and in the third part of the barony of Forgandenny 27 July 1597. She was kenned to her terce of Longforgan, when the cavels being cast, the sunny third part fell to her, 27 February 1616. She died at Edinburgh 27 February 1618, her executors being her sons James and Frederick. The children of the marriage were:

(1). John, second Earl of Kinghorne.

(2). James, who received the lands of Auldbar from his elder brother on 9 April 1619, and in the following year he granted a discharge to his brother the Earl of the succession due to him by the death of his father and mother. His nephew Earl Patrick calls him “a mightie covenanter”, but Baillie styles him “that learned and noble gentleman Auldbar”. From July 1630 to August 1641 he was one of the representatives of the county of Angus in Parliament, and one of the Lords of the Articles. He was a strenuous promoter of the interests of the Covenant, particularly in his own county, and being one of the three Commissioners from Parliament to the Assembly, he took a prominent part in the negotiations between the two bodies. Dying without issue 13 August 1641, his lands returned to the Earl.

(3). Patrick, who died young.

(4). Frederick, who had a charter of novodamus of Brigton in 1622; subsequently he acquired Drumtochty, Scrogerfield and Ingliston. One of the members of Parliament for Forfarshire January 1644 to February 1646, and like his elder brother supported the Covenant, serving on various war committees. He was for some time Tutor to Patrick, third Earl of Kinghorne. He died in 1660. He married, first, Margaret, daughter of Sir Patrick Ogilvie of Inchmartine, and had issue:

(1). Patrick, who on 27 August 1652 had a charter from his father of the Brigtoun, Inglistoun and Kirktoun of Kinnettles and Scrogerfield, reserving his own liferent and that of his wife Dame Jean Stewart. In 1661 a Commissioner of Supply for Forfar and Perth. Captain 1677-84 of No.7 Company of the Angus Foot Militia. He married in 1660, Elizabeth sister of William Gray of Invereightie, who survived him and married, secondly Mr Patrick Lyon, advocate. They had issue two daughters.

(2). John, mentioned in his father’s charter of 27 August 1652. Apprentice to Patrick Nicoll, merchant, Edinburgh, 5 March 1656, afterwards a merchant-burgess and bailie of that city. Commissioner of Excise and JP. for Forfar. He died in 1670.

Married 28 January 1662, Margaret, daughter of John Nevay of that Ilk. They had issue:

(1). David, designed in his father’s will as eldest son and was his executor. He had sasine of Brigton 2 November 1679, reserving his mother’s liferent.

(2). John, served heir to his brother David in Brigton and others 24 March 1685, and on the same day served heir-in-general to his father John. Commissioner of Supply for Forfar 1686. He died November 1696, having married Cecilia, daughter of Mr David Dunsmure (who married, secondly, James Stewart). They had a son:

(1). John, served heir to John his father 5 August 1718 in Brigton, Ingliston and Scrogerfield. It was while interposing in the scuffle between him and Carnegy of Phinhaven at Forfar on 10 May 1728 that Charles, fourth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne lost his life. He married, in September 1720, Euphemia Young, only daughter of Joseph Young, merchant in Edinburgh. They had issue:

(1). Charles,served heir to his father John in Brigton 4 November 1740; served heir-general to his mother 6 April 1744. He sold the estate of Brigton 20 May 1743 and died before 14 December 1754.

(2). John.

(3). Joseph.

(4). Susanna, married to David Nairne of Drumkibbo, with issue.

(5). Agnes.

(6). Cecilia.

(7). Euphan.

(3). Helen, married to Mr William Gray of Invereightie. She had sasine on her marriage contract 1693.

(3). Anna, married David Nevay of that Ilk, son of the above John. In 1679 her liferent in the estate was reserved.

He married, secondly, Dame Jean Stewart, relict of George Crichton of Arbeckie, to whom, on 22 April 1650, he granted a liferent of the Kirkton of Kynnell, but by her he had no issue.

(5).Anne,married (contract 2 and 9 September 1618) to William, Lord Hay, who afterwards succeeded as tenth Earl of Erroll. Her tocher was 40,000 merks.She granted in the same terms as her brother James a discharge of all sums she could claim by the death of her parents and Jean her sister, dated ut supra.

(6). Jean, died unmarried before 2 October 1618.

[10]. John, second Earl of Kinghorne, and tenth Lord Glamis, born 13 August 1596. He was served heir in the lordship of Glamis, under a special dispensation from the King, 31 March 1617. On 4 April 1617 he purchased from Patrick Kinnaird of Inchture the two parts of the lands of Mylnehill and the lands of Longforgan called the Byreflats for 22,000 merks. Brydestoun he purchased in 1619 from Patrick Langlands, portioner of Collace; the lands of Lenros and Aikers of Baky from John Lyon of Westhill of Glamis 27 February 1621; the lands of Tullos and Craichie from William, Earl of Morton and John Lyon of Auldbar in 1621. About the same time he acquired the patronage of Roscobie, Airlie and Kinghorne. The lands of Drumgowan and Courtastoune in Aberdeenshire, which had been in the family from the Chamberlain’s time, he sold on 30 June 1619 to John Leith of Whitehaugh; Forgandenny he sold to Laurence Keir, Writer in Edinburgh, on 28 March 1628. The “Troubles” then began in earnest, and there were no more acquisitions.

Earl Patrick (11) in lamenting his father’s devotion to the cause of the Covenant, which did indeed bring the family to the verge of ruin, hints that it was all owing to the influence of his brother James of Auldbar, Earl John being a man “easie to be intreated”,but in justice to Auldbar and with deference to this filial explanation of what Earl Patrick regarded as a parent’s weakness, it must be pointed out that such a view is nowhere countenanced by record. There is not in all these centuries of Lyon family history any example of facility to be found, least of all is any such weakness apparent in the career of Earl John. From 1621 he took an active part in the public business of the country, siding with the great majority of the nation against the King, and the records of Privy Council and of Parliament teem with testimonies to his energy. He served on all the important committees of State from 1627 onwards, and was the leading member of the commission to consider the proper sites for fortifications on the sea coast. On 22 September 1638 the Privy Council in a body subscribed the Confession of Faith, and having set the example, proceeded to enforce it upon their fellow subjects. The Earl, with Auldbar his brother and Montrose, formed three out of a committee of six appointed to enforce its acceptance upon the shire of Forfar with results which Sheriff Napier delights to record, and in the same year he accompanied Montrose in his Aberdeen campaign, and the energy and ability he then displayed, as well as the material aid he brought from his own estates, contributed largely to its successful issue, and it was an Aberdonian Homer who sang:

“God bliss Montrois our Geberal,

The stout Earl of Kinghorne,

That we may long live and rejoyce

That ever they were borne.”

The Earl’s principles were now to be put to the severest test. The great Marquess of Montrose, one of his oldest friends, with whom he had contended in youthful emulation for the silver arrow on the Links of Barry and St.Andrews, and who had been in happier days his guest at Glamis, was now about to embark on that career of victory which shed its radiance over the sinking cause of the King. Perfectly aware of the importance of securing the help of so experienced and powerful a man as the Earl of Kinghorne, Montrose spared no effort to induce his old friend to join him. At first the Earl wavered, and with Montrose as suitor who can wonder?. But the hesitation was temporary. He was present in the Assembly of 1641 when the bound was denounced as unlawful, and members were required to sign a declaration to that effect. “Kinghorne, being present, subscribed”, writes Baillie, fully aware of the significance of the act. On 18 November 1641 he was appointed a member of the reconstituted Privy Council, and on 26 August 1643 colonel of one of the Foot regiments of Forfarshire. During Montrose’s career of victory, which lasted from September 1644 to September 1645, he took an active part in organising the armies raised to oppose his former friend and ally, pledging his credit for immense sums borrowed to advance the cause of the Covenant. The result of his exertions was that, coming to his inheritance the wealthiest Peer in Scotland, he left it the poorest. He died at St.Andrews 12 May 1646 of the plague, communicated by the Earl of Erroll’s preceptor. By his will, dated at Glamis 15 January 1644, he “ordaines our bodie to be buried honorablie conforme to our rank in our awand buriell in the kirk of Glamis”, and nominated his wife sole executrix and tutrix to his son.

He married, first (contract 19 June 1618) Margaret Erskine, third daughter of John, seventh Earl of Mar, marriage tocher £20,000, with issue a daughter:

(1). Marie, who died young 7 November 1639.

Secondly, Elizabeth Maule, second daughter of Patrick, first Earl of Panmure. On 20 August 1641 he granted his future wife the barony of Bakie. She survived him, and married, secondly on 30 July 1650, George, third Earl of Linlithgow. She died at Castle Lyon in October 1659. They had issue:

(2). Patrick, third Earl of Kinghorne.

(3). Joan,died young unmarried.

(4). Elizabeth, married (contract 28 August 1665) to Charles, first Earl of Aboyne.

[11]. Patrick, third Earl of Kinghorne, eleventh Lord Glamis, born 29 May 1643. Educated at the University of St.Andrews. On 12 April 1654 fined by the usurper Cromwell in £1000 sterling, which sum was afterwards reduced to £250. Many details of his useful and happy life are to be found in the Glamis Book of Record. On 30 May 1672 he obtained a new charter on his own resignation of the title and dignity of Earl of Kinghorne, Lord Lyon and Glamis, and of the lands of the earldom, to himself and the heirs male of his body, whom failing, to any other persons whom he should please to nominate during his life, “etiam in articulo mortis”, as his heir. This grant was ratifled in Parliament. On 1 July 1677 he received an addition to his title, which in future was to be Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon, Lord Glammis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw, and Stradichtie, with the precedence of the former honour of Earl of Kinghorne. On this question of precedency he had a struggle with the Earl of Lothian, the progress of which is narrated in the Acts of Parliament. The rubric only of the final decreet in his favour appears on record, 8 May 1685, but the protest by the Earl of Lothian on 29 April 1686 is for precedency ” “before the Earles ranked in the rolls after the Earle of Strathmore”.

To make headway against the enormous load of debt for which his father had become responsible, he was compelled to part with many of the family estates. Fothros and Schenwall, otherwise Tentsmuir, were sold by his tutors in 1649, and Inchsture and Holms were also sold during the minority. The barony of Belhelvies, in Aberdeenshire, he sold to his uncle George, Earl of Panmure, “at a just and equal price”, as he gratefully records. He also parted with Bakie, Byreflatt, Newton and Nether Blackhall. In 1684 he sold the island of Inchkeith to Sir George Mackenzie. With the proceeds of these sales, added to strict economy and great business capacity, he was not only enabled to expend large sums on buildings and improvements at Glamis and Castle Lyon, now Castle Huntly, and wipe out a large part of his father’s obligations, but to make substantial additions to the estates retained. The lands of Thornton he purchased from John Seton of Thornton 25 August 1662; the Vicar’s manse and Westhill of Glamis from Captain David Lyon 22 June 1664; the barony of Reidie from Sir David Nevay of Reidie 1 August 1664; Drymmie from Sir George Kynnaird of Rossie 26 November 1664; Fofarty from William Gray of Invereightie in January 1670; Haystoun from William Gray of Haystoun also in January 1670; the barony of Kynnaird, with the church patronage, the Seamills of Dundee and Ferryboats and Admiralty of the River Tay, from James, Earl of Newburgh, 23 June 1670; the Castle of Kinghorne from Sir Robert Kirkcaldy of Grange the same year; Halltoun of Eassie and Balgownie Eassie from Donald Thorntoun of Balgownie 15 June 1671; the Office of the Constabulary of the Burgh of Forfar and the superiority of Nevay and Knap from William Gray of Carse 19 May 1672; the Preceptory of Balgownie Eassie and Chaplainry of Baikie from Mr John Lyon, Writer in Edinburgh, in the same year. In 1662 he obtained an Act of Parliament for the holding of two yearly fairs in the town of Longforgan, “a very populous place, far distant from any royall burgh”,to he held on the last Tuesday of July and the first Tuesday of October”, in 1669 an Act for a weekly market and a yearly fair at Glamis; and in 1686 an Act for holding four free fairs in the year on his lands and baronies, the dates and places being unspecified.

He took his share in public life, and was a regular attender at all the Parliaments held between the Restoration and the Revolution. In 1685 he was nominated one of the Lords of the Articles, and served on several important committees. In 1680 he was appointed a Commissioner of the Treasury. In 1681 he received a pension of £500, “in consideration of his loyalty and great charge in public employment’s” and in 1682 became a Privy Councillor. On 27 March 1686 he was appointed an Extraordinary Lord of Session, from which post he was removed at the Revolution.

On 29 September 1668 he was appointed captain of the second troop of Forfarshire Militia. This commission he held until 1682, when he voluntarily demitted it in favour of his eldest son. On 29 May 1676 he became colonel of the Forfarshire Regiment of Foot Militia, which he held until 1685, when the force ceased to be called out. In January 1678 he was nominated a member of the Western Committee appointed to superintend the operations of the “Highland Host”, which marched into the south western shires in the spring of that year, to compel the population to submit to the orders of the Privy Council in regard to the suppression of Conventicles and other irregularities within their bounds. As the Minutes of the Committee in question show, he was by far the most regular attender of its meetings, being absent on only two occasions between 24 January and 20 March, when the force was withdrawn. The Host was mustered at Stirling 24 January 1678, and numbered 590 horse and 6124 foot, of which Angus contributed 104 horse and 1000 foot, the horse in two troops, the first being commanded by the Earl of Airlie. Lord Strathmore’s operations were chiefly in Ayrshire, where the memory of the Angus men is still green by reason of Wodrow’s incessant references to their exploits. The Earl also invaded Lanarkshire and drew upon himself a severe protest from the Duchess of Hamilton, duly served upon him by a notary; it is perhaps this incident which is referred to in the otherwise obscure reference to him by Cleland in his “Expedition of the Highland Host”. The greater part of the Host returned home early in March, and the only force hailing from beyond the Forth after that date were the Angus Horse and Foot. They remained until the Western Committee made its final report to the Privy Council, and returning by Linlithgow, Inverkeithing, Kirkcaldy, and Dysart, were disbanded at Dundee in the first week of April 1678. He took no part in the campaign which terminated at Bothwell Brig in 1679, but in the Argyll Rising of 1685 he was again out with his Regiment, which escorted to Edinburgh the spoils of that campaign. Large quantities of meal and other victual were at this time purchased by Government from the Earl, and stored at Stirling for the use of the troops.

On 23 July 1672 he received the commission of lieutenant in the King’s Life Guards, of which the Marquess of Atholl was captain; this employment he resigned 18 July 1680.

His attitude towards the Revolution of 1688 was passively hostile, and he remained in Edinburgh up to January 1689, in the hope of preventing its success. But ultimately he accepted the new rule, and he is last noted as appearing in Parliament on 15 May 1693.

Earl Patrick died on 15 May 1695. The editor of the Glamis Book of Record justly sums up his character, “a man of strict integrity and uprightness, with a profound respect for the honour of his ancestors, and a deep sense of his responsibility to posterity”. He married (contract dated at Holyrood 23 August 1662) Helen Middleton, second daughter of John, Earl of Middleton, then Lord High Commissioner. The ceremony was performed on the same day by Archbishop Sharpe, the Earl being then nineteen years and four months of age. In that very human document, the Glamis Book of Record, no episodes make more delightful reading than those in which the Earl refers to his wife; these disclose a rare picture of domestic felicity, and they were sweethearts to the end. She died May 1708, having had issue by him:

(1). John, fourth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(2). Mr Patrick, received the lands of Auchterhouse for his patrimony. MP. for Angus from 22 September 1702 to the Union. He voted uniformly against the Treaty of Union with England. His name occurs in the list of persons for whose arrest warrants were issued on the occasion of the Jacobite scare of 1708 and he was present on the Braes of Mar, 9 September 1715, when the standard of King James VIII. was raised. He, wit the Earl of Aboyne, brought in the men of Aboyne, who were brigaded with the Panmure contingent and designated the Panmure Highlanders, Auchterhouse being lieutenant colonel. He was killed at the battle of Sheriffmuir, fought 13 November 1715. “A man of very great honour”. He married Margaret Carnegie, sister of that James Carnegie of Phinhaven who accidentally killed Charles, Earl of Strathmore. She died sp. at Finhaven 14 April 1742.

(3). Charles, died 1692.

(4). Grizel, married (contract 19 April and 8 May 1696) to David, third Earl of Airlie.

(5). Elizabeth, married, first, to her cousin Charles, second Earl of Aboyne; secondly, as his second wife, to Patrick, third Lord Kinnaird; and thirdly, after 1715, to Captain Alexander Grant of Grantsfield. She died January 1739.

[12]. John, fourth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and twelfth Lord Glamis, was born 8 May 1663. Educated at the University of St.Andrews. Travelled abroad in his youth. Captain of the second troop of Angus Militia 7 February 1682. Served heir to his father 29 October 1695. On 12 March 1696 appointed Sheriff of Forfar. He was great encourager of horse breeding, and owned in his time several race horses. Among his memoranda is one dated 17 February 1702: “I went down this day to Barry Sands to see the race ‘twixt my Red Rose and Sir James Kinloch’s gelding, which I won”. He was an uncompromising opponent of the Whig administrations of the period. He subscribed £500 to the Darien Scheme. On 14 January 1701 he voted for the Act asserting the right of the nation to Darien, a proposal the ministry succeeded in defeating. He consistently opposed the Treaty of Union. In 1706 Lord Strathmore wrote the Earl of Mar, then Secretary of State of Scotland, asking for the protection of Episcopal ministers against Presbyterian zeal, to which Mar rejoined, “The ministers your lordship writes of, are not qualified conform to law by taking the oaths, so if people will persew them, there is no protecting them”. In 1708, when many people were put under arrest in prospect of a Jacobite invasion, it was accounted a ferlie that the Earl of Strathmore should be allowed to go about without guards. Macky wrote of him, “This gentleman is well bred and good natured, hath not yet endeavoured to get into the administration, being no friend to Presbytery. He hath two of the finest seats in Scotland, Glamis and Castle Lyon; is tall, fair and towards fifty years old”.

The Earl died on 10 May 1712. He married (contract 21 September 1691) Elizabeth Stanhope, daughter of Philip, second Earl of Chesterfield, by his second wife Lady Elizabeth Butler, daughter of James, Duke of Ormond. She was a careful wife and mother, ample evidence of both facts being found in her household book 1706-24, still preserved at Glamis. She died 24 April 1723, leaving issue:

(1). Patrick, Lord Glamis. Educated at Edinburgh and Aberdeen. He died before 10 September 1709.

(2). Philip, Lord Glamis. Baptized 29 October 1693. He was educated with his elder brother until the latter’s death. He then proceeded to Oxford, where after an illness of nine days, he died on 18 March 1712.

(3). John, Lord Glamis, who succeeded as fifth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(4). Charles, who succeeded as sixth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(5). Hendrie, baptized 1 July 1700; died young.

(6). James, who succeeded as seventh Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(7). Thomas, who succeeded as eighth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(8). Helen, baptized 3 January 1695, married (contract in 1714) to Robert, seventh Lord Blantyre, by whom she had no surviving issue. She died at Bath 19 December 1723.

(9). Mary, baptized 16 April 1697, who died, unmarried at Glamis Castle 26 May 1780.

(10). Catherine, baptized 24 April 1707; died young.

[13]. John, fifth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and thirteenth Lord Glamis, baptized 27 April 1690, served heir to his father 11 September 1712. When the Earl of Mar reached Perth in the end of September 1712 with the forces raised by him in support of the cause of James VIII., Lord Strathmore joined him with a battalion of Foot raised from his estates. He steadily devoted himself to the training of his corps, and it formed part of the force despatched by Mar to join Lord Kenmure and the Earl of Nithsdale in the south of Scotland. The command of the expedition was given to Brigadier Mackintosh of Borlum, who marched his force to Burnt-island, and leaving there a small party to make a feint of crossing, turned eastwards along the Fife coast, and on the night of the 12 and 13 October embarked his men in open boats at Elie, Pittenweem, the Ansters, and Crail. The English men-of-war who were guarding the Forth concentrated their attention on Burntisland, and did not discover that they had been outwitted until the greater part of Borlum’s force was safely across, including four companies of the Strathmore regiment. The English ships now gave chase and captured two boats, the remaining part of the flotilla containing Lord Strathmore, his lieutenant-colonel, Walkinshaw of Barrowfield, and 200 men being driven on to the Isle of May, where they were attacked by the English longboats. They made a successful defence, and after maintaining themselves eight days on the island, succeeded in regaining the Fife coast, the Earl being the last man to enter the boats. On the 8 of November Mar at last set out on his journey southwards, leaving behind him as a garrison in Perth the Ogilvy regiment and that part of Lord Strathmore’s which had marched into England with Borlum. At this juncture Lord Tullibardine, who had been promoted major-general, gave over his regiment to his cousin Lord Strathmore, and it was in command of this corps that the Earl marched in the left wing of the Jacobite army. The opposing forces met at Sheriffmuir on 12 November 1715. The right wing of Argyll’s army, commanded by the Duke in person, after a stubborn contest of three hours, compelled the left wing of the Highland army to give way, and drove it step by step across the Allan Water. The Highlanders lost heavily,and among the slain was the Earl of Strathmore. The last scene is thus described by a brother officer; “On our left the brave younge Strathmore was killed after being wounded and takne, when he found all turning their backs he seized the colours, and persuaded fourteen or some such number to stand by him for some time, which dreu upon him the ennemie;s fire, by which he was wounded in the bellie, and goeing off was takne and murder’d by a dragoon, and it may be said in his fate that a mill-stone crusht a brilliant. He was the younge man of all I ever saw who approached the nearest to perfection, and his least qualitie was that he was of a noble ancient familie and a man of qualitie”. On 4 January following King James VIII. and the Earl of Mar arrived at Glamis Castle, where they remained several days, and from whence Mar addressed a circular letter of encouragement to his supporters, but his own incapacity and indecision were so manifest that cause for which the young noble laid down his life collapsed a few weeks afterwards.

[14]. Charles, sixth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and fourteenth Lord Glamis, baptized 12 July 1699. Served heir general to his brother John 9 April 1717. He took an active part in settling the disputes among the Episcopalian party in Scotland. He was one of the nobles who refused to take the oath of allegiance to the House of Hanover. It will be remembered that the family had been compelled to part with the Aberdeenshire estates in the time of Patrick, third Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, but the old connection was not forgotten,and in the Civil War of 1715 a body of Aberdeenshire men was placed under the command of Patrick Lyon of Auchterhouse, who fell at Sheriffmuir. A still more striking episode occurred in the time of Earl Charles. Several families bearing the names of Bowman and More in Glenmuick and Glenesk approached his Lordship in the autumn of 1723, setting forth that their forebears were truly and really of the sirname of Lyon, who had come out of the shire of Angus on account of some troubles, and assumed the names Bowman and More, but being blood Lyons they now desired to resume their true sirname. The Earl acknowledged the kinship, and they accordingly entered into a bond with him as their chief and protector, and became bound to answer his call upon all occasions, the Earl on the other hand receiving them into his protection and acknowledging them to be of his clan and family. The contract, dated at Aboyne 2 October 1723, was subscribed by twenty six heads of families taking the name of Lyon, together with one who subscribed “AG. their pyper”.

Earl Charles was accidentally stabbed at Forfar on Thursday 9 May 1728, by James Carnegy of Phinhaven, and he died of his wound on Saturday 11 May. Phinhaven was tried for murder at the Justiciary Court of Edinburgh on 25 July following, and was acquitted.

Earl Charles married (contract 21 July), on 25 July 1725, Susan Cochrane, second daughter of John, fourth Earl of Dundonald, but by her had no issue. She married, secondly, on 2 April 1745, Mr.George Forbes, her factor, and died in the Roman Catholic faith at Chaventon, near Paris, 23 June 1754.

[15]. James, seventh Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and fifteenth Lord Glamis. Baptized 24 December 1702. Served nearest heir male and of provision to his brother Earl Charles on 2 December 1729. He entered the Army and had a company in Barrell’s Foot (22nd Regiment) 1732. In his time a sept of the name of Breassauch, dwelling in Glenshee and Glenisla, entered into a contract similar to that between Earl Charles and the Bowmans and the Mores. They declared the sirname of Breassauch to be only their borrowed name, and they now desired to assume their true name of Lyon, and acknowledge the Earl to be their chief. The Earl admitted the claim and acknowledged them to be his kin and blood. The contract, dated at Glamis Castle 28 July 1731, is subscribed for the Clan by their leader Patrick Lyon, who is designed therein Captain Patrick Lyon, younger of Innerarity.

The Earl died 4, and was interred 18 January 1735, in the Abbey of Holyroodhouse. He married 6 March 1731, Mary, daughter of Charles Oliphant, MD., brother of the Laird of Langton, burgess of Inverarary, and MP. for the Ayr burghs, sp. She died at Glamis Castle 7 September 1731.

[16]. Thomas, eighth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and sixteenth Lord Glamis. Baptized 6 July 1704. Served nearest heir male of Earl James his brother on 26 October 1738. He was elected MP. for Forfarshire 30 May 1734 and resigned on succeeding to the title. When the heritable jurisdictions in Scotland were abolished after the Civil War of 1745-46, he claimed compensation for the heritable constableship of the burghs of Forfar and Kinghorn, and for the coronership of the shires of Forfar and Kincardine. He was a great supporter of agriculture, and executed many improvements on the estates.

He died at Glamis Castle 18 January 1753. He married, 20 July 1736, Jean, born 22 September 1713, eldest daughter and one of the three coheiresses of James Nicholson of West Rainton, co.Durham, who died at Hetton 13 May 1778. They had issue:

(1). John, ninth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(2). James Philip, born at Rainton 2 July 1738. Educated at Cambridge. His friends wished him to study for the bar, but he refused, and went out to India in the service of the East India Company. He was taken prisoner at Cossimbazaar by Mir Cossim, Nabob of Bengal, and with several other British officers put to death at Patna by order of the Nabob in February 1763; unmarried.

(3). Thomas of Hetton House, Durham, born 1741. Educated at Cambridge. Candidate in a severe contest for the county of Forfar, in which he was defeated by the family of Panmure. The struggle was so exhausting to both sides that it resulted in a family compact by which it was settled that the House of Panmure and Strathmore should in future return a member alternately. After his defeat in the county he was elected member for the Montrose district of burghs 12 April 1768 to 30 September 1774. He was MP. for Forfarshire 29 November 1774 to 11 January 1779. He died at Binchester 13 September 1796. He married 13 June 1774, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Farren Wren of Binchester,co.Durham, and by her, who died 13 May 1811, had issue:

(1). Thomas, died 7 September 1794 sp.

(2). John of Hetton House, served heir general to his father 12 July 1797. Married 3 February 1812, Anne, daughter of Barrington Price(who married, secondly, in 1830, Lieutenant John William Oldmixon, RN.) and died 20 June 1829, leaving an only daughter Mary, who married the Hon.Russell Barrington.

(3). Charles,born 1792. Married Miss Gibson and died 14 August 1859.

(4). Mary, married 1 January 1799 (contract dated 11 December 1798) to Thomas Wilkinson, and died 22 June 1803.

(5). Anne.

(6). Frances, married 24 June 1811, to the Rev.Thomas Thurlow, brother of Edward, second Lord Thurlow and died 5 January 1863.

(7). Charlotte, married 20 November 1809, to the Rev.Henry George Liddell, brother of Lord Ravensworth, and died 30 January 1871.

(8). Susan, married 20 May 1811, to Rev.John Fellowes of Shottisham, in Norfolk.

(9). Mary Anne, married 31 October 1821 to John Clutterbuck of Wakeworth, Northumberland.

(4). Susan, married at Houghton-le-Spring, 5 September 1763 to General John Lambton of Harraton Hall,co.Durham, who died in 1794. She died at Nice 26 February 1769. They had issue.

(5). Anne, married 15 July 1768 to John Simpson of Bradley,co.Durham.

(6). Mary, died at Hetton 22 May 1767, aged eighteen.

(7). Jane, died unmarried 22 August 1836, aged sixty.

[17]. John, ninth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and seventeenth Lord Glamis. Born at Rainton 17 July 1737. Served heir male and of line to his father in the earldom and estates on 4 May 1753. He was elected one of the Representative Peers of Scotland 1 October 1767, and re-elected at the General Elections of 1768 and 1774. He travelled much in Spain and Portugal, and died at sea on his passage to Lisbon 7 March 1776. He married 24 February 1767, Mary Eleanor, born 24 February 1749, only child and heiress of George Bowes of Streatlam Castle and Gibside, co.Durham, by Mary, his second wife, the only daughter of Edward Gilbert of Paul’s Walden, Hertfordshire. She married, secondly 17 January 1777, Andrew Robinson Stoney of King’s County, formerly Lieutenant in the 30th Foot, from whom she obtained a divorce 3 March 1789. She died 28 April 1800. The spouses obtained in 1767 an Act of Parliament “to enable John Bowes, Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, his wife, the daughter and only child of John Bowes, Esq.,deceased to take and use the sirname of Bowes only, pursuant to his will and the settlement executed previous to the marriage of the said Earl and Countess”. They had issue:

(1). John, tenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(2). George Bowes of Paul’s Walden, Hertford, born 17 November 1771. Lieutenant, Buckland and Shrivenham Yeomanry Cavalry, 20 June 1798. Married 14 June 1805, Mary daughter of Edward Thornhill, Esq. of Kingston Lisle,co.Berks (who married, secondly, in 1811, Barrington Price). He died sp. 31 January 1806.

(3). Thomas, eleventh Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(4). Mary, born 22 April 1768. Married at Hallgarth,co.Durham, 11 May 1789 to Colonel Barrington Price of Beckett,co.Gloster, and died on her birthday 22 April 1806.

(5). Anna Maria, married at London 22 January 1778 to Henry James Jessop and died 29 March 1832.

[18]. John, tenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and eighteenth Lord Glamis. Born 14 April 1769. Served heir of line and provision to his father 11 September 1776. Cornet in the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards 15 November 1786; captain 65th Foot. Elected a Representative Peer 1796, and re elected 1802 and 1807. Created Baron Bowes of Streatlam,co.Durham, and of Lunedale,co.York, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom 1815. The Earl died 3 July 1820, and with him the barony of Bowes of Streatlam expired. He married while in “articulo mortis”, at St.George’s Hanover Square (the officiating clergyman being the Dean of Carlisle), 2 July 1820, Mary daughter of J Millner of Staindrop (who married secondly 16 March 1831, the Right Hon. Sir William Hutt, KCB. and died 5 May 1860).

By his wife he had a son John, born before the marriage, who claimed the title, before the House of Lords, on the ground that he was legitimated “per subsequens matrimonium”, but the case was decided against him, 29 June 1821, on the ground of his parents not having a Scottish domicile.

[19]. Thomas, eleventh Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and nineteenth Lord Glamis, brother of the preceding. Born 3 May 1773. In 1806 he succeeded to the estate of Paul’s Walden on the death of his immediate elder brother George. High Sheriff of the county of Leicester 1810. He died at the Palace of Holyrood on Thursday 27 August 1846. He married, first,1 January 1800 Mary Elizabeth Louisa Rodney, only daughter and heiress of George Carpenter of Redbourn, Herts, and by her, who died at Caldecote Hall 1 June 1811, he had issue:

(1). Thomas George, Lord Glamis, born 6 February 1801; married 21 December 1820, Charlotte, daughter of Joseph Valentine Grimstead, who died 19 January 1881. Lord Glamis died 27 January 1834, leaving issue by his wife:

(1). A son, born and died 21 October 1821.

(2). Thomas George, twelfth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(3). Claude, thirteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(4). Herbert, died in infancy.

(5). Arthur, died in infancy.

(6). Charlotte, born 15 May 1826; died 22 October 1844.

(7). Frances, to whom a patent of precedence was granted 10 February 1847. She married 2 February 1858, to Hugh Charles Trevanion, who died 20 May 1901. She died 27 January 1903, leaving surviving issue.

(2). Mary Isabella, born 8 August 1802, married 8 August 1824 to John Walpole Willis, Barrister-at-law, DL., who died 10 September 1877, leaving issue. This marriage was dissolved by Act of Parliament 1833.

The Earl married secondly in 1812, Eliza, daughter of Colonel Northcote, and by her he had issue:

(3). Sarah, born 8 August 1813; married, first on 2 November 1834, to George Augustus Campbell, of the HEICS. who died 7 November 1841;and secondly on 13 July 1843, to Major Charles Philip Ainslie, of the 14th Light Dragoons. She died 6 June 1847.

The Earl married thirdly on 8 December 1817, Marion, daughter of George Cheape of Sauchie, and widow of Sir Alexander Campbell, Bt. of Ardkinglas. She died at Holyrood 23 October 1849.

[20]. Thomas George, twelfth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and twentieth Lord Glamis. Born at St.Paul’s Walden 28 September 1822. Cornet and sub-lieutenant 1st Life Guards 28 June 1839; captain South Hertfordshire Yeomanry Cavalry; lieutenant colonel Forfarshire Yeomanry 1856-62; Deputy Lieutenant of Forfarshire 1847; a Representative Peer 1852-65. A great patron of the turf, and although his horse seldom or ever won a race, his devotion to the sport remained unabated. For a considerable period before his death he resided at Glamis Castle, where he died 13 September 1865. He married 30 April 1850, Charlotte Maria, eldest daughter of William, sixth Viscount Barrington, who died 3 November 1854, sp.,aged twenty eight.

[21]. Claude, thirteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and twenty first Lord Glamis. Born at Redbourne 21 July 1824. Educated at Winchester and at Christ Church, Oxford. Cornet and sub-lieutenant 2nd Life Guards 30 June 1848; lieutenant 6 July 1852; retired 15 December 1854. Received the precedence of an Earl’s son by royal warrant, dated 8 February 1847. An Honorary Freeman of Forfar 1868. In 1874 an Honorary Burgess of Dundee. A Representative Peer 1870-86. Created, 1 July 1887, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, Baron Bowes of Streatlam Castle, in the county of Durham, and of Lunedale, in the county of York. July 1874, Lord Lieutenant of Forfarshire. He altered the family name Lyon-Bowes to Bowes-Lyon. He rendered the most eminent services to agriculture, a fact recognised by the Highland and Agriculture Society, which elected him President in 1885 and again in 1890. He took a leading place among the breeders of polled cattle, the Glamis herd being famous the world over, and he was the first winner at Islington of Queen Victoria’s Challenge Cup for the best animal bred by the exhibitor. He was also an exceedingly successful breeder of Clydesdale horses and Shropshire sheep. As a wise and generous landlord he was held in high respect by his tenantry and neighbours, and he was President of a large number of local societies having for their objects the promotion of the prosperity and happiness of his fellow subjects. He was an ardent supporter of the Scottish Episcopal Church.

He Died 16 February 1904. He married 28 February 1853, Frances Dora, daughter of Oswald Smith, Esq. of Blendon Hall, Kent, and had issue:

(1). Claude George, now Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

(2). Francis, of Ridley Hall, Carlisle, Hetton Hall,co.Durham, and Norton Manor, Somersetshire. Born 23 February 1856. JP.,DL. for the counties of Forfar and Northumberland. Late colonel commanding 2nd Volunteer Battalion Black Watch. Married 22 November 1883, Lady Anne Catherine Sybil Lindsay, fifth daughter of the twenty-fifth Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, and has issue:

(1). Charles Lindsay Claude, born 16 September 1885; lieutenant 3rd Battalion Black Watch.

(2). Geoffrey Francis, born 30 September 1886; lieutenant 1st Battalion Black Watch.

(3). Ronald George, born 27 June 1893; cadet RN.

(4). Muriel Frances Margaret, born 29 September 1884.

(5). Dora Cicely, born 16 December 1887.

(6). Winifred Geraldine, born 18 December 1889.

(7). Lilian Helen, born 22 December 1895.

(3). Ernest, born 4 August 1858; second Secretary H M. Diplomatic Service; married 23 August 1882, Issobel Hester, daughter of Harvey Drummond of Iping,co.Essex, and died 27 December 1891, leaving issue:

(1). Hubert Ernest, Villa Etelinde,Dorney,Bucks. Born 6 October 1883; married 14 January 1905, Mary Agnes, daughter of James Hay Smeaton.

(2). Susan Frances, born 25 October 1884; drowned by the wreck of the steamship Sidon, off Corunna 28 October 1885.

(3). Dorothea Marion, born 12 April; died 10 July 1886.

(4). Joan Issobel Margaret, born 30 April 1888; married 24 June 1909 to Alfred Ernest Parker, 10th Royal Hussars, youngest son of the late Alfred Traill Parker of Aigburth,Lancashire.

(5). Marjorie Effie, born 6 July 1889, married 20 April 1909 to Captain Douglas Walkden Roberts, RA.,son of the late John M Roberts of Bath.

(6). Ernestine Hester Maud, born 19 December 1891; married 23 November 1910 to Francis Winstone Scott, son of Walter Scott of Mostyn,Tadworth.

(4). Herbert, BA.;born 15 August 1860; advocate, 1886; DL. for Forfarshire; died unmarried 14 April 1897.

(5). Patrick, of Skeynes, Edenbridge,Kent; born 5 March 1863; Barrister-at-law; late lieutenant RN.;DL. for Forfarshire; married 9 August 1893, Alice Wiltshire, ward of Captain Arthur Lister Kaye, of Manor House,Stretton-on-Dunmore, and has issue:

(1). Gavin Patrick, born 13 December 1895.

(2). Agnus Patrick, born 22 October 1899.

(3). Jean Bardara, born 9 October 1904.

(4). Margaret Anne, born 19 June 1907.

(6). Kenneth, born 26 April 1867; died January 1911.

(7). Malcolm, born 23 April 1874; captain late 2nd Life Guards; served in South African War 1902. Married 28 September 1907, Winifred, daughter of Hector John Gordon-Rebow, DL.,late of Wyvenhoe Park, Essex, and has issue.

(1). Clodagh Pamela, born 15 July 1908.

(8). Constance Frances, born 8 October 1865; married 21 December 1893, to Robert L Blackburn, Esq., Advocate, and has issue.

(9). Mildred Marion, born 6 October 1868; married 1 July 1890 to Alfred E Jessup of Torquay, and died 9 June 1897, leaving issue.

(10). Maud Agnes, born 12 June 1870.

(11). Evelyn Mary, born 16 July 1872; died 15 March 1876.

[22]. Claude George, fourteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and twenty second Lord Glamis. Born 14 March 1855; lieutenant 2nd Life Guards 11 September 1876; resigned 7 January 1882; Lord Lieutenant of the county of Forfar; Deputy Lieutenant of the county of the city of Dundee; JP. for Herts; Hon.Colonel 5th Battalion Black Watch. Married 16 July 1881, at Petersham,Surrey, Nina Cecilia, born 11 September 1862, daughter of the late Rev.Charles William Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck, grandson of William Henry, third Duke of Portland, and has issue:

(1). Patrick, Lord Glamis, born 22 September 1884; sub-lieutenant Scots Guards 2 March 1904; lieutenant 13 April 1905; resigned 7 August 1909; Major 5th Battalion Black Watch; married 21 November 1908 Lady Dorothea Beatrice, third daughter of George, tenth Duke of Leeds, and has issue:

(1). Hon,Patrick John, Master of Glamis, born 1 January 1910.

(2). John Herbert, born 1 April 1886.

(3). Alexander Frances, born 14 April 1887.

(4). Fergus, born 18 April 1889, lieutenant 2nd Battalion Black Watch.

(5). Michael Claud Hamilton, born 1 October 1893.

(6). David, born 2 May 1902.

(7). Violet Hyacinth, born 17 April 1882; died 17 October 1893.

(8). Mary Francis, born 30 August 1883; married 14 July 1910, to Sidney, sixteenth Lord Elphinstone.

(9). Rose Constance, born 6 May 1890.

(10). Elizabeth Angela Marguerite, born 4 August 1900.

Creations: Lord Glammis 23 June 1445; Earl of Kinghorne, Lord Lyon and Glamis 10 July 1606; Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon, Lord Glammis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Stradichtie 1 July 1677, in the Peerage of Scotland.

Baron Bowes of Streatlam Castle,co.Durham, and of Lunedale,co.York 7 August 1815 (extinct); Baron Bowes of Streatlam Castle,co.Durham, and of Lunedale,co.York 1 July 1887, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

Arms: (recorded in the Lyon Register).- Argent, a lion rampant azure, armed and langued gules, within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second. (The Earl now apparently bears this coat quarterly with that of Bowes: Ermine, three bows, strings palewise proper.

Crest: A lady from the middle, richly attired, holding in her dexter hand a thistle, all within a garland of bay leaves, proper. (The crest has been subject to considerable variation. The seal of the first Lord Glamis bears the half length figure of a lady between two short-sleeved arms issuing from the wreath, embowed and raised above her head. The seventh Lord bore for crest a lion salient contourne).

Supporters:Dexter, a unicorn argent, armed and unguled or. Sinister, a lion rampant parted per fess or and gules.

Motto: In te, Domine, speravi.

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