CROXTON KERRIAL, or Croxton Kyiel, is a pleasant village and parish, on a bold declivity of the Wold hills, :3 miles S. by E. of Belvoir Castle, and 9 miles N.E. of Melton Mowbray, in Framland Hundred Grantham Union and County Court District; it contained, in 1871, 618 persons, living in 121 houses on (including the area of Bescaby parish) 3900 acres of land.
In 1060 Croxton was held by the King, and had 24 carucates and two ploughs in the demesne, 5 bondsmen, 22 villans, and 2 bordars, with 2 ploughs ; 30 socmen, with 8 ploughs, 30 acres of meadow, and 2 mills. Soon afterwards William the Conqueror gave it to Robert Mallet, Baron of Eye; but King Stephen (1135-1154) gave it to his natural son, William, Earl of Montaigne, &c.
Croxton Abbey stood on the Bescaby side of the park and was founded about 1150, by William, Earl of Montaigne, Parcarius de Linus.
“Ranulph had Ingelram de Lions named Parcar; as being forester of Croxton Leicester; by exchange with the King.” [Monasticon Anglicanum (Page 604)]
“William Parcarius de Lions was a benefactor to Croxton Abbey in the time of Henry II” [1154-1189]
Croxton Leicester England
About 1176 King Henry exchanged Croxton and Sedgebrook for Corsham and Culington in the south of England. A family named Porter, originally coming from Liuns in Normandy, got two thirds of the places and a Masilia de Apgard one third. Both families and their descendants made considerable gifts to the abbey.
In 1193 King Richard I, while returning from the Crusades, was imprisoned and held for ransom in Germany, meanwhile, his brother Prince John, then Count of Moreton, ravaged the countryside from Nottingham, gave Croxton to his chamberlain, Hubert de Burgo (Burgh). Hugh Porter was in Normandy at the time, but Hugh was able to recover his estates from de Burgo when King Richard was released and had returned to England.
It is of interest that the ransom raised for Richard was provided by the sale of the whole of the wool of the Cistercian and pre-monstratensian abbeys in 1193. Croxton abbey played its part for it was one of the leading wool-producers in Leicestershire.
When war broke out between King John and King Philip Augustus of Prance in 1204, Hugh Porter fled to his lands in Normandy and John gave Croxton manor to Geoffrey Lutterell of Bescaby and Saltby. He passed it on to his son, Andrew Lutterell, who became sub-sheriff of Nottingham under his father-in-law, Philip Marc, the sheriff of Nottingham.
Memoirs Illustrative of the History and Antiquities of the County and City of York
By Royal Archaeological Institute (Great Britain)
Extract from Pages 128-129
Under the heading of the foundation and endowment of the priory of Croxton, we read,
“of the gift of William son of Ingram Parcarius, of Linus in Normandy, two parts of the park of Croxton and whatsoever was of his right and liberty in the same, in wood and plain, meadow anti pasture, and in all easements within the circuit of the wail, and two parts of the carueate of land of Roger Parcarius, with all its appurtenances within the vill and without, and all his rent of salt in Hoyland, namely, from Donnington, in pure and perpetual frankalmoign.
Also Hugh Parcarius, brother of the aforesaid William, confirmed the said donation, according to the tenor of the charter of the same William. Of his gift were two borates of land for the fabric of the church, and three bovates of land, which lIervey the clerk had held, and all his demesne of Croxton in fee-farm, except his mansion and his vassals, as freely and entirely, as Ingeram his father, or William his brother, had ever more freely and fully possessed it, at a rent of four marks of silver annually.
Of the gift of Marzaria de St Aubin, and of Wymer, her son the third part of the park within the circuit of the wall„ and the third part of the carucate of land, which was that of Roger Parcarins, and all her rent of salt in Hoyland namely, in Donnington. Matilda de Periers, mother of the aforesaid Hugh Parcarius, gave to them all her right in the aforesaid park. Also King Richard and King Henry, son of King John, confirmed the donation of William Portarius, in which ,confirmation the meadow of Crokeholm at Sedgebrook was comprehended.”
Lions-Ia-Foret is the chef lieu of a canton in the arrondissement of Andely and departement of the Eure, and in its vicinity was the Cistercian abbey of Mortemer-en-Lions, to which were benefactors in the year 1186; Enguerrand Portarius of Lions; and Mathildis, his wife, and William their son. Hugh Portarius was also a benefactor in 1205, as also Robert de SL Aubin. Hugh le Porter had a fief at Pericrs and Peruel in the Roumois derived from his mother, which he sold to the abbot and monks of St. Ouen, for £230 money of Tours in 1206, his wife receiving from them £5, and his eldest son, Enguerrand, a like sum.”
In the same register this extract identifies these Parcarii of Linus (an obvious misprint for Lions) with the Portarii of Lions; Ingeram le Porter came at the Conquest and had two parts of Corsham and Culington, and had two sons William and Hugh. And the Lord Henry, father of King Richard and of John made exchange with Ingeram le Porter of Corsham and Culington for two parts of Croxton and of Sedgebrook. And Masilia de Auppegard had the third part of Corsham and of Culington and in like manner made an exchange with aforesaid Henry for the third part of Croxton and Sedgebrook.”
The continuation of the extract from the register as cited in the text, is as follows;
“at length Hubert having been mad justiciary in England by the precept of the lord king he obtained such seizin of the aforesaid vill, as he had before, as is above said, and moreover seizin of the vilt of Sedgebrook, having expelled from it Reginald des Vaux, ferinor of the lord, duike of Gloucester.
A certain lady Masilia held the third part of Croxton and in like manner Sorozina her daughter, after her; but they say that the said Masilia followed the standard of the Parcarii by the name of service, wheresoever they went in the service of the lord the king.” From this account it may be inferred that Masilia de Auppegard was tenant of this third part in exchange for the third part or Corsham and Culington, as held by her in frank-marriage. From an entry on the Close rolls of the first year of Henry the Third, we learn of the existence of an heir to the ancient possessors of this manor, who has in this Jotter the name of Janitor, and fully establishes that Parcarius is a misprint for Portarius, its synonym. “The king to William de Cantilupe, greeting.. Know ye that We have granted to our beloved and faithful Engerrand de Betencurt, who is faithfully and constantly in our service, the land of Hugh le Porter, his uncle, with the appurtenances in Croxton, as his own hereditary right, as we understand, to support himself in our service as long as it shall please us. And therefore we enjoin you that you cause him to have thereof full seizing without delay. Witness the earl at Flaxley, 30th day of July.”
The same injunction was sent to the sheriff of Lincolnshire of the land which had been that of Hugh le Porter in Sedgebrook. Witness the earl as above. On the same roll are other two entries, one an injunction to the sheriff of Nottinghamshire to cause Ingerran. de Betencurt to have the land which Hugh le Porter (Portarius) his uncle held in Sedgebrook and Croxtou. Witness the same earl at Castle Goodrich, 5th day of July. And the second is to William de Cantilupe in the same terms al the above. Witness the same earl at Oxford, 25th day of July. On the roll of Letters Close of the eighth year of Henry the Third, is this entry of seizin ; “It is enjoined the sheriff of Leicestershire that, he cause Hubert do Burgh, the justiciary, to have full seizin of the manor of Croxton with its appurtenances, which he had taken into the hands of the lord the king, by the precept of the same lord the king. Witness myself at Westminster, 26th day of May, in the 8th year of our reign.”
Of the manor of Sedgebrook we have this entry on the roll of the fifth year of Henry the Third; “The king to the sheriff of Nottinghamshire, greeting. We enjoin you that you cause Hubert de Burgh, our justiciary, without delay to have full seizin of the manor of Sedgebrook with the appurtenances, whereof the same Hubert de Burgh had the charter of Lord John the king, our father, of his gift, whilst be had been count of Mortain. Witness, Peter, bishop of Winchester, at Westminster, 20th day of November, in the fifth year of our reign.” Upon the eleventh day of February, I 224,, Hubert de Burgh was created earl of Kent, and on the roll of Charters of the eleventh year of Henry the Third is the following in his favour.
The first Park-keeper of Pontefract Park whom I can trace was Hugh Parcarius, who, about 1220, marrying an heiress at Featherstone, settled there. He was followed, perhaps after an interval, by John le Parker, who, towards the close of the century, emulated his example, and through his wife became possessed of what was afterwards known as Huntwick Grange.
Dodsworth, 138, fol. 145 b.
Huutwyke. Sciant &c, quod ego Rad Bere de Huntewicdediconcessi et quietumclamauiinperpetuum de me GalfridoP’iu’gnomeo pro seruitioBuoillis (sic) teuem^to absq: vHoretenemento quod Johannes Parcarius pater ipsiusGalfridicepit in maritagio cum MarioramatreeiusdemGaJfridi in Huntewic. Tenendum et habendumdictoGalfrido et heredibus vel assignatissuisliberequietepacifice et integre cum omnibus libertatibus et asiamentis ad ipsumtenementumpertinentibus infra villam et extra absqueomniclamio et inpeticione mei in perpetuum. £t vt hec mea donatio concessio et quietaclamatiorobore, erpetuefirmitatisoptineat (sic) presensscriptu’ sigilli mei impressioneroboraui. his testibus
The carucate was based on the area a plough team of eight oxen could till in a single annual season. It was sub-divided into oxgangs, or “bovates”, based on the area a single ox might till in the same period, which thus represented one eighth of a carucate; and it was strongly analogous to the hide, a unit of tax assessment used outside the Danelaw counties.
In English law, frankalmoign(e) was also known as “tenure in free alms”. Gifts to religious institutions in free alms were defined first as gifts to God, then to the patron saint of the religious house, and finally to those religious serving God in the specific house.
Hoyland is a town near Barnsley in Northern England in South Yorkshire.